الخميس، 19 مارس، 2009

Bears - Polar Bear

Bears - Polar Bear, Grizzly, Panda, Big Brown, Kodiak, Teddy, Koala, Black Bears Pictures & Facts






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Bears, wolves, hyenas and wasels make up four groups of carnivores that are related in their evolutionary descent from the miacid. Miacid is a creature that lived 50 million years a go.

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The Kodiak and the polar bear are the largest country carnivore on ground. All are predators and many still sit down daily to a meal of animal meat. They must take their steak any way they can find it, defend it from competing predators and sometimes risk their own lives to get it.




Bears fact

Bears, like other carnivores, trace their pedigree back to the miacids, small, snouted, weasel like animals that lived 50 million years ago. Some 38 million years ago bears began to go their own evolutionary way. The first clearly bear like animals was Amphicynodon; the first true bear was Ursavus (both represented in the form of skulls, the only evidence available). The modern genus Ursus appeared between five and ten million years ago.
They (ursids) are the heavyweights of the land varnivores and generally omnivores (omnivores = an animal that is both vegetable and animal food necessary has to survive) , with a preference for vegetable food. After a period of eating meat more or less esclusively, they became omnivores for still not yet explained reason.
The giant panda departed the furthest from a strictly carnivorous diet until recently they were thought to be strict vegatarians.
The polar bear with scant choice of food in the Arctic became largely carnivorous and developed into an expert swimmer and stalker in order to hunt seals, its favorite prey. The bears maintained the talents of some early miacids for tree-climbing.


The bears may stand over 10 feet tall on its hind legs and weights more than 680 kilogram (for example Alaskan kodiak bear or Artic polar bear).
The body weight varies between 25 and 800 kilograms, whereby the males become always clearly heavier than the females. The skin is rather long and with most kinds in-colored, most brown or black. The usually elongated lip accommodates 40 or 42 teeth depending upon kind.
Exceptions are the large Pandas with its remarkable black-and-white skin design and the white polar bear. Bears are powerfull built creatures with small eyes and ears, large claws and a slow, ambling gait that can quickly shift to surprising bursts of speed. Bears can if necessary however up to 50 km/h fast run. Usually they climb well (in particular the Malasyan) and can swim also excellently. Some kinds hold a winter peace during the cold months.







Bears rely on a keen sense of smeel, as well as curiosity, to locate potential sorces of food and detect their pray, particularly an acute sense of smell that is at least a hundred times more sensitive than that of man.
They are relatively intelligent, resourceful animals with large, well-developed brains and they are predators that live by taking preyand that eat other animals flesh. Bears have agility, coupled with speed and strength, to overcome their prey once they have flushed it, as well as jaws, teeth or claws capable of gripping and tearing flesh. Since these animals do not need to chew quantities of vegetable matter for their nourishment, their rear molars are not well developed.
Their simple stomachs are designed to handle the easily digested, energy rich flesh of other animals. Some of bears diet is carrio, but bears also hunt for mice, birds' eggs and insect. Bears also eat grasses, roots, berries and nuts and will ignore angry bees to get at a honeycomb, one of their favorite treats.

Bears are born naked and helpless and therefore thermally incompetent; they are totally dependent on the body
warmth provided by their mothers and the den for the first few weeks of life. By 10 days bears have a thin fur coat althought their eyes are still closed


Thermoregulation is an extreme problem for very young animals. Bears are born in a highly altricial state - i.e almost naked, blind and helpless. Their small size and lack of fur mean that they are immediately sybject to rapid collingl in addition they are wet from the birth membranes and have no insulating layer of fatty tissue. The mother has already minimized the risks considerably by giving birth in a den, where the temperature is higher than that of the environment.
Nonetheless, it is still too cold for the young to survive without help. The female cleans and dries the infant and then huddles it close to her own body. The infant stays in close contact with its mother for a considerable time, until it is more able to cope with the cold. Although bears are usually described as being born naked, they do have a light covering of hair which will act as effective, warm boundary layer nex to the skin. Despite the actions of the mother, infants may still be in serious danger of freezing.
However, young mammals are not totally denfenceless in this respect since they are usually supplied with areas of a special type of fatty deposit called brown adipose tissue (BAT) and it is purely thermogenic in function.


Bears playing (play behaviour)
Play is an important behaviour for many mammals in which the young have an extended period of parental supervision. It is unsurprising, therefore, to find that many of the Carnivora have extensive play expression. Three types of bears play are recognized:
Solitary
Social with a conspecific
Social with a member of another species
Solitary bears play usually involves the use of an inanimate object or parts of the animal's own body. Solitary play is much more common in social contexts between litter mates, mothers and their offspring, and also among related young animals which are no longer travelling wih their mothers. Bears may be seen chasing around for no clear reason and both giant pandas and American black bears have been observed toboganning down snow-covered slopes.

Social play among conspecifics most often involves play-fighting; running and chasing one another with little or no actual physical contact is less common. Quite detailed observation of American black bears, both in captivity and in the wild, have shown that play usually involves sequences of behaviour which are commonly used in other situations but which, during play, are terminated incomplete.

For example, bears play-fighting resembles real fighting in terms of the activities used but never involves erection of the hair around the neck and shoulders, which is almost always seen during real contest.

Some behaviours: head-butting and muzzle-bitting are never seen in non-play contexts; head-butting seems to act as an invitation to other animals to play. However, bears play may also serve other functions since it is not solely restricted to cubs. Adult male polar bears have been observed to indulge in playful interactions during which both participants demonstrate mutually predictable and stereotypic behavioural sequences.
In general, it has been suggested that such a social bears play helps individuals to refine their social behaviour and develop their ability to assess competitive opponents in a non-threatening context.




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Polar Bears
Polar Bear(Ursus maritimus) is the largest meat-eating hunter known to Eskimos as Nanook (the great white bear of the North) and to millions of other people as the polar bear

Panda Bear
The existence of this puzzling animal was first revealed in 1869 by French Pere Jean Pierre Armand David. He send back to Paris description about a new species that he named Ursus melanoleucus. One year later Alphonse Milne-Edwards named the species Ailuropoda melanoleuca or black and white bear, known today as panda bear or Pandas.

Grizzly Bear
Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) is a subspecies of the brown bear living in North America. Today, almost all living brown bears with exception of the Kodiak are usually called Grizzly bear.

Black Bear
Black bear(Ursus americanus) is a robbery animal species from the family of the bears (Ursidae), living in North America. In its homeland it is mostly called as black bear or Baribal. In contrast to the rather feared Grizzly the black bear applies as harmless.

Big Bear
Kodiak bear (Ursus arctos middendorffi), sometime called Big Bear or Big Brown, is the largest of all the brown bears. With the size that exceeds 3 meter it is the largest terrestrial carnivore.

Brown Bear
As with American black bear, brown bears (Ursus arctos) have been the subject of considerable taxonomic 'splitting' into subscpecies, the 'grizzly' and the kodiak are probably the best known.

Sloth Bear
Sloth bear (Ursus ursinus) are small and black, sporting a long, shaggy coat; the presence of brown and gey hairs in the coat may give the appearance of a tawny or cinamon colouration. In he past this bear has been extensively hunted due to its reputation for aggression and drop destruction. Today sloth bear is suffering through habitat loss due to a number of agricultural and development schemes.

Sun Bear
Sun bear (Ursus malayanus) is the smallest of the bears, standing only 70cm at the shoulder and measuring 1.2 - 1.5m from nose to rump. In the wild this bear is often cited as one of the most dangerous animals of its range.

Spectacled Bear
Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus) is the only species of bear to be found in South America, where is restricted to the mountainous regions of Peru, Ecuador, Columbia and Venezuela. Persecution and habitat loss due to human encroachment have led to a decline in the range of this bear. In Peru spectacled bear is hunted for its meat and fur, and population fragmentation, resulting in the isolation of individuals, has become a severe threat to their reproductive success.

Asiatic black bear
Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) is medium-sized and usually uniformly black, except for its light-coloured muzzle and a distinctive white chevron extending out to the shoulders from the chest. In some areas, individuals, may appear to have a more brown coloration. The ears appear large in proportion to the rest of the head. The Asiatic black bear is suffering from the encroachment of human activities into its habitat.

Red Panda
Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens) is not bear. A long debate ensued as to whether or not Red Pandas were in fact bears, in the same manner as the Giant Panda. However, it was determined that both Red Pandas and raccoons were related; however they were not related to the Giant Panda. This became evidenced after studying the DNA of Giant Pandas and comparing them with the DNA of Red Pandas.

Raccoon
Raccoon (Procyon lotor) is classified as a Procyonidae. They are also members of the Carnivora group and are distinguished by their small size and the fact that they are omnivorous, meaning that they eat both plants and meat. However, raccoons are known for eating anything that they can get their highly adapted claws on. This is one main difference between raccoons and bears, and has helped determine its classification as separate from Panda bears.

Koala bear
Koala bear (Phascolarctos cinereus) comes from Australia and is not a bear but like its Australian counterpart the Kangaroo is in fact a marsupial. Koala bears are native to Australia and extremely cute but the only reason the Koala is referred to as "koala bears" is because it resembles the adorable little teddy bears that are known for being cute and cuddly.

Teddy Bears
Teddy Bear have an universal appeal and he is just 105 years old. We can't even imagine a world without our favor toys - Teddy Bear. Teddies are manufactured in many countries but all Teddy Bears are messengers of love.

Biological Classifications Bears Fact

Name: The Bear
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Theria
Order: Carnivora
Suborder: Caniformia
Family: Ursidae
Superfamily: Ursoidea





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