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George W. Bush
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For other persons of the same name, see George Bush.
George W. Bush
43rd President of the United States
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
Vice President Dick Cheney
Preceded by Bill Clinton
Succeeded by Barack Obama
46th Governor of Texas
January 17, 1995 – December 21, 2000
Lieutenant Bob Bullock (1995–1999)
Rick Perry (1999–2000)
Preceded by Ann Richards
Succeeded by Rick Perry
Born July 6, 1946 (1946-07-06) (age 62)
New Haven, Connecticut
Birth name George Walker Bush
Political party Republican
Spouse Laura Bush
Children Barbara Pierce Bush and Jenna Welch Hager
Residence Dallas, Texas
Alma mater Yale University
Harvard Business School
Religion United Methodist
Website Bush Presidential Library
Bush Presidential Center
The White House Archived
Service/branch Texas Air National Guard
Alabama Air National Guard
Years of service 1968–1974
Rank First Lieutenant
George Walker Bush ( /ˈdʒɔrdʒ ˈwɔːkɚ ˈbʊʃ/ (help·info); born July 6, 1946) served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He was the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000 before being sworn in as President on January 20, 2001.
Bush is the eldest son of 41st U.S. President George H. W. Bush and Barbara Bush. After graduating from Yale University, Bush worked in his family's oil businesses. He married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the United States House of Representatives shortly thereafter. He later co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards to become Governor of Texas in 1994. In a close and controversial election, Bush was elected President in 2000 as the Republican candidate, receiving a majority of the electoral votes, but losing the popular vote to then Vice President Al Gore.
Eight months into Bush's first term as President, the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks occurred, and Bush announced a global War on Terrorism, ordered an invasion of Afghanistan that same year and an invasion of Iraq in 2003. In addition to national security issues, President Bush promoted policies on the economy, health care, education and social security reform. He signed into law broad tax cuts, the No Child Left Behind Act and Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors. His tenure saw a national debate on immigration and social security.
Bush successfully ran for re-election against Democratic Senator John Kerry in 2004, garnering 50.7% of the popular vote to his opponent's 48.3%. After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism from some sources. In 2005, the Bush administration dealt with widespread criticism over its handling of Hurricane Katrina. In December 2007, the United States entered the second-longest post-World War II recession, and his administration took more direct control of the economy, enacting multiple economic stimulus packages. Though Bush was a popular president for much of his first term, his popularity declined toward the end of his second term to a near-record low.
1 Childhood to mid-life
1.2 Texas Air National Guard
2 Marriage and family
3 Early career
4 Governor of Texas
5 Presidential campaigns
5.1 2000 Presidential candidacy
5.1.2 General election
5.2 2004 Presidential candidacy
6.1 Domestic policy
6.1.1 Economic policy
6.1.2 Education and health
6.1.3 Social services and Social Security
6.1.4 Environmental and energy policies
6.1.5 Stem cell research and first use of veto power
6.1.7 Treatment of terrorist detainees
6.1.8 Hurricane Katrina
6.1.9 Midterm dismissal of U.S. attorneys
6.2 Foreign policy
6.2.1 September 11, 2001
6.2.2 War on Terrorism
6.2.5 North Korea
6.2.7 Assassination attempt
6.2.8 Other issues
6.3 Judicial appointments
6.3.1 Supreme Court
6.3.2 Other courts
6.4 Public image and perception
6.4.2 Foreign perceptions
7 Post presidency
8 See also
10 External links
Childhood to mid-life
Main article: Early life of George W. Bush
Born in New Haven, Connecticut on July 6, 1946, Bush was the first child of George H. W. Bush and Barbara Bush (born Pierce). He was raised in Midland and Houston, Texas, with his four siblings, Jeb, Neil, Marvin and Dorothy. Another younger sister, Robin, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953. Bush's grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U.S. Senator from Connecticut. Bush's father, George H. W. Bush, served as U.S. President from 1989 to 1993.
As a child, Bush attended public schools in Midland, Texas until the family moved to Houston after he completed seventh grade. He then went to The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Houston, for two years.
Bush finished his high school years at Phillips Academy, a boarding school (then all-male) in Andover, Massachusetts, where he played baseball and during his senior year was the head cheerleader. Bush attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968, receiving a Bachelor's degree in history in 1968. As a college senior, Bush became a member of the secretive Skull and Bones society. He characterized himself as an average student.
Beginning in the fall of 1973, Bush attended the Harvard Business School, where he earned an MBA. He is the only US President to have earned an MBA.
Texas Air National Guard
Lt. George W. Bush while in the Texas Air National Guard.In May 1968, Bush was commissioned into the Texas Air National Guard. After training, he was assigned to duty in Houston, flying Convair F-102s out of Ellington Air Force Base. Critics[who?] allege that Bush was favorably treated due to his father's political standing, citing his selection as a pilot and his irregular attendance. In June 2005, the United States Department of Defense released all the records of Bush's Texas Air National Guard service, which remain in its official archives.
In late 1972 and early 1973, he drilled with the Alabama Air National Guard, having moved to Memphis to work on the unsuccessful U.S. Senate campaign of Republican Winton M. Blount. In October 1973, Bush was discharged from the Texas Air National Guard and transferred to inactive duty in the Air Force Reserve. He was discharged from the Air Force Reserve on November 21, 1974, at the end of his six-year service obligation.
Marriage and family
See also: Bush family
George and Laura Bush with their daughters Jenna and Barbara, 1990.In 1977, he was introduced by friends at a backyard barbecue to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. Bush proposed to her after a three-month courtship and they were married on November 5 of that year. The couple settled in Midland, Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. In 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to twin daughters, Jenna and Barbara; they graduated from high school in 2000 and from the University of Texas at Austin and Yale University, respectively, in 2004.
Prior to his marriage, Bush had multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance, on September 4, 1976, he was arrested near his family's summer home in Kennebunkport, Maine for driving under the influence of alcohol. He pleaded guilty, was fined $150 and had his Maine driver's license suspended until 1978.
Bush says his wife has had a stabilizing effect on his life, and attributes to her influence his 1986 decision to give up alcohol. While Governor of Texas, Bush said of his wife, "I saw an elegant, beautiful woman who turned out not only to be elegant and beautiful, but very smart and willing to put up with my rough edges, and I must confess has smoothed them off over time."
Main article: Professional life of George W. Bush
In 1978, Bush ran for the House of Representatives from Texas's 19th congressional district. His opponent, Kent Hance, portrayed him as being out of touch with rural Texans; Bush lost the election by 6,000 votes (6%) of the 103,000 votes cast. He returned to the oil industry and began a series of small, independent oil exploration companies. He created Arbusto Energy, and later changed the name to Bush Exploration. In 1984, his company merged with the larger Spectrum 7, and Bush became chairman. The company was hurt by a decline in oil prices, and as a result, it folded into Harken Energy. Bush served on the board of directors for Harken. Questions of possible insider trading involving Harken arose, but the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) investigation concluded that the information Bush had at the time of his stock sale was not sufficient to constitute insider trading.
Bush moved his family to Washington, D.C. in 1988 to work on his father's campaign for the U.S. presidency. He worked as a campaign adviser and served as liaison to the media; he assisted his father by campaigning across the country. Returning to Texas after the successful campaign, he purchased a share in the Texas Rangers baseball franchise in April 1989, where he served as managing general partner for five years. He actively led the team's projects and regularly attended its games, often choosing to sit in the open stands with fans. The sale of Bush's shares in the Rangers in 1998 brought him over $15 million from his initial $800,000 investment.
In December 1991, Bush was one of seven people named by his father to run his father's 1992 Presidential re-election campaign as "campaign advisor." The prior month, Bush had been asked by his father to tell White House chief of staff John H. Sununu that he should resign.
Governor of Texas
Main article: George W. Bush as Governor of Texas
Governor Bush with wife, Laura, and father, former President George H. W. Bush, at the dedication of the George Bush Presidential Library, November 1997.As Bush's brother, Jeb, sought the governorship of Florida, Bush declared his candidacy for the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. His campaign focused on four themes: welfare reform, tort reform, crime reduction, and education improvement. Bush's campaign advisers were Karen Hughes, Joe Allbaugh, and Karl Rove.
After easily winning the Republican primary, Bush faced popular Democratic incumbent Governor Ann Richards. In the course of the campaign, Bush pledged to sign a bill allowing Texans to obtain permits to carry concealed weapons. Governor Richards had vetoed the bill, but Bush signed it after he became governor. According to The Atlantic Monthly, the race "featured a rumor that she was a lesbian, along with a rare instance of such a tactic's making it into the public record—when a regional chairman of the Bush campaign allowed himself, perhaps inadvertently, to be quoted criticizing Richards for 'appointing avowed homosexual activists' to state jobs." The Atlantic, and others, connected the lesbian rumor to Karl Rove, but Rove denied being involved. Bush won the general election with 53.5 percent against Richards' 45.9 percent.
Bush used a budget surplus to push through Texas's largest tax-cut ($2 billion). He extended government funding for organizations providing education of the dangers of alcohol and drug use and abuse, and helping to reduce domestic violence.
In 1998, Bush won re-election with a record 69 percent of the vote. He became the first governor in Texas history to be elected to two consecutive four-year terms. For most of Texas history, governors served two-year terms; a constitutional amendment extended those terms to four years starting in 1975. In his second term, Bush promoted faith-based organizations and enjoyed high approval ratings. He proclaimed June 10, 2000 to be Jesus Day in Texas, a day on which he "urge[d] all Texans to answer the call to serve those in need."
Critics contended that during his tenure, Texas ranked near the bottom in environmental evaluations, but supporters pointed to his efforts to raise the salaries of teachers and improved educational test scores.
Throughout Bush's first term, national attention focused on him as a potential future presidential candidate. Following his re-election, speculation soared. Within a year, he decided to seek the Republican nomination for the presidency.
2000 Presidential candidacy
Main article: United States presidential election, 2000
Bush in Concord, New Hampshire signing to be a candidate for president
Bush stands with supporters in Concord, New Hampshire after filing to run for the presidency
In June 1999, while Governor of Texas, Bush announced his candidacy for President of the United States. With no incumbent running, Bush entered a large field of candidates for the Republican Party presidential nomination. Along with Bush, that field of candidates consisted of John McCain, Alan Keyes, Steve Forbes, Gary Bauer, Orrin Hatch, Elizabeth Dole, Dan Quayle, Pat Buchanan, Lamar Alexander, John Kasich and Robert C. Smith.
Bush portrayed himself as a compassionate conservative. He campaigned on a platform that included increasing the size of the United States Armed Forces, cutting taxes, improving education, and aiding minorities. By early 2000, the race had centered on Bush and McCain.
Bush won the Iowa caucuses, but, although he was heavily favored to win the New Hampshire primary, he trailed John McCain by 19% and lost that primary. However, the Bush campaign regained momentum and, according to political observers, effectively became the front runner after the South Carolina primary, which according to The Boston Globe made history for its negativity and the New York Times described it as a smear campaign.
On July 25, 2000, Bush surprised some observers by asking the Halliburton corporation's chief executive officer Dick Cheney, a former White House Chief of Staff, U.S. Representative and Secretary of Defense, to be his running mate. Cheney was then serving as head of Bush's Vice-Presidential search committee. Soon after, Cheney was officially nominated by the Republican Party at the 2000 Republican National Convention.
Bush continued to campaign across the country and touted his record as Governor of Texas. Bush's campaign criticized his Democratic opponent, incumbent Vice President Al Gore, over gun control and taxation.
When the election returns came in on November 7, Bush won 29 states, including Florida. The closeness of the Florida outcome led to a recount. Two initial counts went to Bush, but the outcome was tied up in courts for a month until reaching the U.S. Supreme Court. On December 9, in the Bush v. Gore case, the Court reversed a Florida Supreme Court ruling ordering a third count, and stopped an ordered statewide hand recount based on the argument that the use of different standards among Florida's counties violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The machine recount showed that Bush had won the Florida vote by a margin of 537 votes out of six million cast. Bush received 271 electoral votes to Gore's 266. However, he lost the popular vote by 543,895 votes, surpassing the previous 1876 election record.
2004 Presidential candidacy
Main article: United States presidential election, 2004
George W. Bush speaks at a campaign rally in 2004In 2004 Bush commanded broad support in the Republican Party and did not encounter a primary challenge. He appointed Kenneth Mehlman as campaign manager, with a political strategy devised by Karl Rove. Bush and the Republican platform included a strong commitment to the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, support for the USA PATRIOT Act, a renewed shift in policy for constitutional amendments banning abortion and same-sex marriage, reforming Social Security to create private investment accounts, creation of an ownership society, and opposing mandatory carbon emissions controls. Bush also called for the implementation of a temporary guest-worker program for immigrants, which was criticized by conservatives.
The Bush campaign advertised across the U.S. against Democratic candidates, including Bush's emerging opponent, Massachusetts Senator John Kerry. Kerry and other Democrats attacked Bush on the war in Iraq, perceived excesses of the USA PATRIOT Act and for allegedly failing to stimulate the economy and job growth. The Bush campaign portrayed Kerry as a staunch liberal who would raise taxes and increase the size of government. The Bush campaign continuously criticized Kerry's seemingly contradictory statements on the war in Iraq, and claimed Kerry lacked the decisiveness and vision necessary for success in the war on terrorism.
In the election, Bush carried thirty-one of fifty states, receiving a total of 286 electoral votes. He won an absolute majority of the popular vote (50.7% to his opponent's 48.3%). The previous President to win an absolute majority of the popular vote had been Bush's father in the 1988 election. Additionally, it was the first time since Herbert Hoover's election in 1928 that a Republican president was elected alongside re-elected Republican congressional majorities in both Houses. Bush's 2.5% margin of victory was the narrowest for a victorious incumbent President since Woodrow Wilson's 3.1% margin of victory against Charles Evans Hughes in 1916.
Main articles: Presidency of George W. Bush, George W. Bush's first term as President of the United States, George W. Bush's second term as President of the United States, and George W. Bush Cabinet
Main article: Domestic policy of the George W. Bush administration
Main article: Economic policy of the George W. Bush administration
Facing opposition in Congress, Bush held town hall-style public meetings across the U.S. in 2001 to increase public support for his plan for a $1.35 trillion tax cut program—one of the largest tax cuts in U.S. history. Bush argued that unspent government funds should be returned to taxpayers, saying "the surplus is not the government’s money. The surplus is the people’s money." With reports of the threat of recession from Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan, Bush argued that such a tax cut would stimulate the economy and create jobs. Others, including the Treasury Secretary at the time Paul O'Neill, were opposed to some of the tax cuts on the basis that they would contribute to budget deficits and undermine Social Security. By 2003, the economy showed signs of improvement, though job growth remained stagnant.
Under the Bush Administration, real GDP grew at an average annual rate of 2.5 percent, considerably below the average for business cycles from 1949 to 2000. Bush entered office with the Dow Jones Industrial Average at 10,587, and the average peaked in October 2007 at over 14,000. When Bush left office, the average was at 7,949, one of the lowest levels of his presidency. Unemployment originally rose from 4.2 percent in January 2001 to 6.3 percent in June 2003, but subsequently dropped to 4.5 percent as of July 2007. Adjusted for inflation, median household income dropped by $1,175 between 2000 and 2007. , while Professor Ken Homa of Georgetown University has noted that "after-tax median household income increased by 2%" The poverty rate increased from 11.3% in 2000 to 12.3% in 2006 after peaking at 12.7% in 2004. By October 2008, due to increases in domestic and foreign spending, the national debt had risen to $11.3 trillion, an increase of over 100% from the start of the year 2000 when the debt was $5.6 trillion. The perception of President Bush's effect on the economy is significantly affected by partisanship.
In December 2007, the United States entered the second-longest post-World War II recession, which included a housing market correction, a subprime mortgage crisis, soaring oil prices and a declining dollar value. In February, 63,000 jobs were lost, a 5-year record. To aid with the situation, Bush signed a $170 billion economic stimulus package which aimed to improve the economic situation by sending tax rebate checks to many Americans and providing tax breaks for struggling businesses. The Bush administration pushed for significantly increased regulation of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac in 2003, and after two years, the regulations passed the House but died in the Senate. Many Republican senators, as well as influential members of the Bush Administration, feared that the agency created by these regulations would merely be mimicking the private sector’s risky practices.
In September 2008, the crisis became much more serious beginning with the government takeover of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac followed by the collapse of Lehman Brothers. and a federal bailout of American International Group for $85 billion.
Many economists and world governments determined that the situation became the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Additional regulation over the housing market would have been beneficial, according to former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan. President Bush, meanwhile, proposed a financial rescue plan to buy back a large portion of the U.S. mortgage market. Vince Reinhardt, a former Federal Reserve economist now at the American Enterprise Institute, said "it would have helped for the Bush administration to empower the folks at Treasury and the Federal Reserve and the comptroller of the currency and the FDIC to look at these issues more closely," and additionally, that it would have helped "for Congress to have held hearings."
In November 2008, over five hundred thousand jobs were lost. That marked the largest loss of jobs in the United States in 34 years. In the last four months of 2008 alone, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported the loss of 1.9 million jobs. 
Education and health
President Bush undertook a number of educational priorities. He increased funding for the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health in his first years of office, and created education programs to strengthen the grounding in science and mathematics for American high school students. Funding for the NIH was cut in 2006, the first such cut in 36 years, due to rising inflation.
Bush signs the No Child Left Behind Act into law, January 2002One of the administration's early major initiatives was the No Child Left Behind Act, which aimed to measure and close the gap between rich and poor student performance, provide options to parents with students in low-performing schools, and target more federal funding to low-income schools. This landmark education initiative was signed into law by President Bush in early 2002. Many contend that the initiative has been successful, as cited by the fact that students in the U.S. have performed significantly better on state reading and math tests since Bush signed "No Child Left Behind" into law. Critics argue that it is underfunded and that NCLBA's focus on "high stakes testing" and quantitative outcomes is counterproductive.
After being re-elected, Bush signed into law a Medicare drug benefit program that, according to Jan Crawford Greenburg, resulted in "the greatest expansion in America's welfare state in forty years;" the bill's costs approached $7 trillion. In 2007, Bush opposed and vetoed State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) legislation, which was added by the Democrats onto a war funding bill and passed by Congress. The SCHIP legislation would have significantly expanded federally funded health care benefits and plans to children of some low-income families from about 6 million to 10 million children. It was to be funded by an increase in the cigarette tax. Bush viewed the legislation as a move toward the liberal platform of socialized health care, and claimed that the program could benefit families making as much as $83,000 per year who did not need the help.
Social services and Social Security
Following Republican efforts to pass the Medicare Act of 2003, Bush signed the bill, which included major changes to the Medicare program by providing beneficiaries with some assistance in paying for prescription drugs, while relying on private insurance for the delivery of benefits. The retired persons lobby group AARP worked with the Bush Administration on the program and gave their endorsement. Bush said the law, estimated to cost $400 billion over the first 10 years, would give the elderly "better choices and more control over their health care".
President Bush speaks at the United States Coast Guard Academy commencement, May 2007Bush began his second term by outlining a major initiative to reform Social Security, which was facing record deficit projections beginning in 2005. Bush made it the centerpiece of his domestic agenda despite opposition from some in the U.S. Congress. In his 2005 State of the Union Address, Bush discussed the potential impending bankruptcy of the program and outlined his new program, which included partial privatization of the system, personal Social Security accounts and options to permit Americans to divert a portion of their Social Security tax (FICA) into secured investments. Despite emphasizing safeguards and remaining open to other plans, Democrats opposed the proposal to partially privatize the system.
Bush embarked on a 60-day national tour, campaigning vigorously for his initiative in media events, known as the "Conversations on Social Security", in an attempt to gain support from the general public. Despite the energetic campaign, public support for the proposal declined and the House Republican leadership decided not to put Social Security reform on the priority list for the remainder of their 2005 legislative agenda. The proposal's legislative prospects were further diminished by the political fallout from the Hurricane Katrina in the fall of 2005. After the Democrats gained control of both houses of the Congress as a result of the 2006 midterm elections, the prospects of any further congressional action on the Bush proposal were dead for the remainder of his term in office.
Environmental and energy policies
Main article: Domestic policy of the George W. Bush administration#Environment
Upon arriving in office in 2001, Bush stated his opposition to the Kyoto Protocol, an amendment to the United Nations Convention on Climate Change which seeks to impose mandatory targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, citing that the treaty exempted 80 percent of the world's population and would have cost tens of billions of dollars per year. He also cited that the Senate had voted 95–0 in 1997 on a resolution expressing its disapproval of the protocol.
In 2002, Bush announced the Clear Skies Act of 2003, aimed at amending the Clean Air Act to reduce air pollution through the use of emissions trading programs. It was argued, however, that this legislation would have weakened the original legislation by allowing higher levels of pollutants than were permitted at that time. The initiative was introduced to Congress, but failed to make it out of committee.
President George W. Bush with Vice President Dick Cheney addressing the media at the State Department, August 14, 2006President Bush believes that global warming is real and has noted that global warming is a serious problem, but he asserted there is a "debate over whether it's manmade or naturally caused". The Bush Administration's stance on global warming has remained controversial in the scientific and environmental communities. Many accusations have been made against the administration for allegedly misinforming the public and not having done enough to reduce carbon emissions and deter global warming.
In 2006, Bush declared the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands a national monument, creating the largest marine reserve to date. The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument comprises 84 million acres (340,000 km²) and is home to 7,000 species of fish, birds and other marine animals, many of which are specific to only those islands. The move was hailed by conservationists for "its foresight and leadership in protecting this incredible area."
In his 2007 State of the Union Address, Bush renewed his pledge to work toward diminished reliance on foreign oil by reducing fossil fuel consumption and increasing alternative fuel production. Amidst high gas prices in 2008, Bush lifted a ban on offshore drilling. The move was largely symbolic, however, as there is still a federal law banning offshore drilling. Bush said, "This means that the only thing standing between the American people and these vast oil reserves is action from the U.S. Congress." Bush had said in June 2008, "In the long run, the solution is to reduce demand for oil by promoting alternative energy technologies. My administration has worked with Congress to invest in gas-saving technologies like advanced batteries and hydrogen fuel cells... In the short run, the American economy will continue to rely largely on oil. And that means we need to increase supply, especially here at home. So my administration has repeatedly called on Congress to expand domestic oil production."
In his 2008 State of the Union Address, Bush announced that the U.S. would commit $2 billion over the next three years towards a new international fund to promote clean energy technologies and fight climate change, saying, "along with contributions from other countries, this fund will increase and accelerate the deployment of all forms of cleaner, more efficient technologies in developing nations like India and China, and help leverage substantial private-sector capital by making clean energy projects more financially attractive." He has also announced plans to reaffirm the United States' commitment to work with major economies, and, through the United Nations, to complete an international agreement that will slow, stop, and eventually reverse the growth of greenhouse gases; he stated, "this agreement will be effective only if it includes commitments by every major economy and gives none a free ride."
Stem cell research and first use of veto power
Federal funding for medical research involving the creation or destruction of human embryos through the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes of Health has been forbidden by law since the passage in 1995 of the Dickey Amendment by Congress and the signature of President Bill Clinton. Bush has said that he supports adult stem cell research and has supported Federal legislation that finances adult stem cell research. However Bush did not support embryonic stem cell research. On August 9, 2001, Bush signed an executive order lifting the ban on federal funding for the 71 existing "lines" of stem cells, but the ability of these existing lines to provide an adequate medium for testing has been questioned. Testing can only be done on twelve of the original lines, and all of the approved lines have been cultured in contact with mouse cells, which creates safety issues that complicate development and approval of therapies from these lines. On July 19, 2006, Bush used his veto power for the first time in his presidency to veto the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act. The bill would have repealed the Dickey Amendment, thereby permitting federal money to be used for research where stem cells are derived from the destruction of an embryo.
President Bush discusses border security with Homeland Security Director Michael Chertoff near the El Paso, Texas, United States-Mexico border, November 2005In 2006, Bush urged to Congress allow more than twelve million illegal immigrants to work in the United States with the creation of a "temporary guest-worker program." Bush did not support amnesty for illegal immigrants, but argued that the lack of legal status denies the protections of U.S. laws to millions of people who face dangers of poverty and exploitation, and penalizes employers despite a demand for immigrant labor.
The President also urged Congress to provide additional funds for border security and committed to deploying 6,000 National Guard troops to the Mexico – United States border. In May-June 2007, Bush strongly supported the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 which was written by a bipartisan group of Senators with the active participation of the Bush administration. The bill envisioned a legalization program for undocumented immigrants, with an eventual path to citizenship; establishing a guest worker program; a series of border and work site enforcement measures; a reform of the green card application process and the introduction of a point-based "merit" system for green cards; elimination of "chain migration" and of the Diversity Immigrant Visa; and other measures. Bush contended that the proposed bill did not amount to amnesty.
A heated public debate followed, which resulted in a substantial rift within the Republican Party, the majority of conservatives opposed it because of its legalization or amnesty provisions. The bill was eventually defeated in the Senate on June 28, 2007, when a cloture motion failed on a 46-53 vote. President Bush expressed disappointment upon the defeat of one of his signature domestic initiatives. The Bush administration later proposed a series of immigration enforcement measures that do not require a change in law.
Treatment of terrorist detainees
Following the events of September 11, Bush issued an executive order authorizing the NSA to monitor communications between suspected terrorists outside the U.S. and parties within the U.S. without obtaining a warrant pursuant to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, maintaining that the warrant requirements of FISA were implicitly superseded by the subsequent passage of the Authorization for Use of Military Force. The program proved to be controversial, as critics of the administration, as well as organizations such as the American Bar Association, claimed it was illegal. In August 2006, a U.S. district court judge ruled that the Terrorist Surveillance Program was unconstitutional, but the decision was later reversed. On January 17, 2007, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales informed U.S. Senate leaders that the program would not be reauthorized by the President, but would be subjected to judicial oversight.
On October 17, 2006, Bush signed into law the Military Commissions Act of 2006, a bill passed in the wake of the Supreme Court's decision on Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, 548 U.S. 557 (2006), which allows the U.S. government to prosecute unlawful enemy combatants by military commission rather than a standard trial. The bill also denies them access to habeas corpus and, while barring torture of detainees, allows the president to determine what constitutes torture.
On March 8, 2008, Bush vetoed H.R. 2082, a bill that would have expanded Congressional oversight over the intelligence community and banned the use of waterboarding as well as other forms of interrogation not permitted under the United States Army Field Manual on Human Intelligence Collector Operations, saying that "the bill Congress sent me would take away one of the most valuable tools in the war on terror."
President Bush has consistently stated that the United States does not torture. Bush can authorize the CIA to use the simulated-drowning method under extraordinary circumstances. The CIA once considered certain enhanced interrogation techniques, such as waterboarding, legally permissible. The CIA has exercised the technique on certain key terrorist suspects and were given permission to do so from a memo from the Attorney General. While the Army Field Manual argues "that harsh interrogation tactics elicit unreliable information", the Bush administration states that these enhanced interrogations have "provided critical information" to preserve American lives.
Main article: Political effects of Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina, which was one of the worst natural disasters in U.S. history, struck early in Bush’s second term. Katrina formed in late August during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and devastated much of the north-central Gulf Coast of the United States, particularly New Orleans.
Bush shakes hands with New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin on September 2, 2005 after viewing the devastation of Hurricane KatrinaBush declared a state of emergency in Louisiana on August 27, and in Mississippi and Alabama the following day; he authorized the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to manage the disaster, but his announcement failed to spur these agencies to action. The eye of the hurricane made landfall on August 29, and New Orleans began to flood due to levee breaches; later that day, Bush declared that a major disaster existed in Louisiana, officially authorizing FEMA to start using federal funds to assist in the recovery effort. On August 30, DHS Secretary Michael Chertoff declared it "an incident of national significance," triggering the first use of the newly created National Response Plan. Three days later, on September 2, National Guard troops first entered the city of New Orleans. The same day, Bush toured parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama and declared that the success of the recovery effort up to that point was "not enough."
As the disaster in New Orleans intensified, critics claimed that the president was misrepresenting his administration's role in what they saw as a flawed response. Leaders attacked the president for having appointed apparently incompetent leaders to positions of power at FEMA, notably Michael D. Brown; it was also argued that the federal response was limited as a result of the Iraq War and President Bush himself did not act upon warnings of floods. Bush responded to mounting criticism by accepting full responsibility for the federal government's failures in its handling of the emergency. It has been argued that with Katrina, President Bush passed a political tipping point from which he would not recover.
Midterm dismissal of U.S. attorneys
Main article: Dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy
During Bush's second term, a controversy arose over the Justice Department's midterm dismissal of seven United States Attorneys. The White House maintained that the U.S. attorneys were fired for poor performance. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales would later resign over the issue, along with other senior members of the Justice Department. The House Judiciary Committee issued subpoenas for advisers Harriet Miers and Josh Bolten to testify regarding this matter, but Bush directed Miers and Bolten to not comply with those subpoenas, invoking his right of executive privilege. Bush has maintained that all of his advisers are protected under a broad executive privilege protection to receive candid advice. The Justice Department has determined that the President's order was legal.
Although Congressional investigations have focused on whether the Justice Department and the White House were using the U.S. Attorney positions for political advantage, no official findings have been released. On March 10, 2008, the Congress filed a federal lawsuit to enforce their issued subpoenas. On July 31, 2008, a United States district court judge ruled that President Bush's top advisers are not immune from Congressional subpoenas.
Main article: Foreign policy of the George W. Bush administration
President George W. Bush, President of Mexico Vicente Fox and Canada's Prime Minister Stephen Harper stand in front of "El Castillo" in Chichen Itza, March 30, 2006
Countries visited by President George W. Bush during his terms in office.During his campaign for election as President, Bush's foreign policy platform included support for a stronger economic and political relationship with Latin America, especially Mexico, and a reduction of involvement in "nation-building" and other small-scale military engagements. The administration pursued a national missile defense. In response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, President Bush launched the War on Terrorism, in which the United States military and an international coalition invaded Afghanistan. In 2003, President Bush launched the invasion of Iraq, which President Bush viewed as being part of the War on Terrorism.
Those invasions led to the toppling of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and the removal of Saddam Hussein from power in Iraq as well as the deaths of many Iraqis, with surveys indicating between four hundred thousand to over one million dead, excluding the tens of thousands of civilians in Afghanistan.
Bush began his second term with an emphasis on improving strained relations with European nations. He appointed long-time adviser Karen Hughes to oversee a global public relations campaign. Bush lauded the pro-democracy struggles in Georgia and Ukraine. In March 2006, he visited India, leading to renewed ties between the two countries, particularly in areas of nuclear energy and counter-terrorism cooperation. Midway through Bush's second term, it was questioned whether Bush was retreating from his freedom and democracy agenda, highlighted in policy changes toward some oil-rich former Soviet republics in central Asia.
September 11, 2001
Main article: September 11 attacks
President Bush addresses rescue workers at Ground Zero in New York, September 14, 2001The September 11 terrorist attacks were a major turning point in Bush's presidency. That evening, he addressed the nation from the Oval Office, promising a strong response to the attacks but emphasizing the need for the nation to come together and comfort the families of the victims. On September 14, he visited Ground Zero, meeting with Mayor Rudy Giuliani and firefighters, police officers, and volunteers. Bush addressed the gathering via a megaphone while standing on a heap of rubble, to much applause:
“ I can hear you. The rest of the world hears you. And the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon. ”
In a September 20, 2001 speech, Bush condemned Osama bin Laden and Al-Qaeda, and issued an ultimatum to the Taliban regime in Afghanistan, where bin Laden was operating, to "hand over the terrorists, or... share in their fate."
War on Terrorism
Main article: War on Terrorism
After September 11, Bush announced a global War on Terrorism. The Afghan Taliban regime was not forthcoming with Osama bin Laden, so Bush ordered the invasion of Afghanistan to overthrow the Taliban regime. In his January 29, 2002 State of the Union address, he asserted that an "axis of evil" consisting of North Korea, Iran, and Iraq was "arming to threaten the peace of the world" and "pose[d] a grave and growing danger". The Bush Administration proceeded to assert a right and intention to engage in preemptive war, also called preventive war, in response to perceived threats. This would form a basis for what became known as the Bush Doctrine. The broader "War on Terror", allegations of an "axis of evil", and, in particular, the doctrine of preemptive war, began to weaken the unprecedented levels of international and domestic support for Bush and United States action against al Qaeda following the September 11 attacks.
Some national leaders alleged abuse by U.S. troops and called for the U.S. to shut down the Guantanamo Bay detention camp and other such facilities. Dissent from, and criticism of, Bush's leadership in the War on Terror increased as the war in Iraq expanded. In 2006, a National Intelligence Estimate expressed the combined opinion of the United States' own intelligence agencies, concluding that the Iraq War had become the "cause celebre for jihadists" and that the jihad movement was growing.
Main article: War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
President George W. Bush and President Hamid Karzai of Afghanistan appear together in 2006 at a joint news conference at the Presidential Palace in Kabul.On October 7, 2001, U.S. and Australian forces initiated bombing campaigns that led to the arrival on November 13 of Northern Alliance troops in Kabul. The main goals of the war were to defeat the Taliban, drive al Qaeda out of Afghanistan, and capture key al Qaeda leaders. In December 2001, the Pentagon reported that the Taliban had been defeated but cautioned that the war would go on to continue weakening Taliban and al-Qaeda leaders. Later that month the UN had installed the Afghan Interim Authority chaired by Hamid Karzai.
Efforts to kill or capture al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden failed as he escaped a battle in December 2001 in the mountainous region of Tora Bora, which the Bush Administration later acknowledged to have resulted from a failure to commit enough U.S. ground troops. Bin Laden and al Qaeda's number two leader, Ayman al-Zawahiri, as well as the leader of the Taliban, Mohammed Omar, remain at large.
Despite the initial success in driving the Taliban from power in Kabul, by early 2003 the Taliban was regrouping, amassing new funds and recruits. In 2006, the Taliban insurgency appeared larger, fiercer and better organized than expected, with large-scale allied offensives such as Operation Mountain Thrust attaining limited success. As a result, President Bush commissioned 3,500 additional troops to the country in March 2007.
Main article: Iraq War
Beginning with his January 29, 2002 State of the Union address, Bush began publicly focusing attention on Iraq, which he labeled as part of an "axis of evil" allied with terrorists and posing "a grave and growing danger" to U.S. interests through possession of weapons of mass destruction. In the latter half of 2002, CIA reports contained assertions of Saddam Hussein's intent of reconstituting nuclear weapons programs, not properly accounting for Iraqi biological and chemical weapons, and that some Iraqi missiles had a range greater than allowed by the UN sanctions. Claims that the Bush Administration manipulated or exaggerated the threat and evidence of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction capabilities would eventually become a major point of criticism for the president.
In late 2002 and early 2003, Bush urged the United Nations to enforce Iraqi disarmament mandates, precipitating a diplomatic crisis. In November 2002, Hans Blix and Mohamed ElBaradei led UN weapons inspectors in Iraq, but were forced to depart the country four days prior to the U.S. invasion, despite their requests for more time to complete their tasks. The U.S. initially sought a UN Security Council resolution authorizing the use of military force but dropped the bid for UN approval due to vigorous opposition from several countries.
President Bush, with Naval Flight Officer Lieutenant Ryan Philips, in the flight suit he wore for his televised arrival and speech aboard the USS Abraham Lincoln in 2003.The war effort was joined by more than 20 other nations (most notably the United Kingdom), designated the "coalition of the willing". The invasion of Iraq commenced on March 20, 2003 and the Iraqi military was quickly defeated. The capital, Baghdad, fell on April 9, 2003. On May 1, Bush declared the end of major combat operations in Iraq. The initial success of U.S. operations increased his popularity, but the U.S. and allied forces faced a growing insurgency led by sectarian groups; Bush's "Mission Accomplished" speech was later criticized as premature. From 2004 through 2007, the situation in Iraq deteriorated further, with some observers arguing that the country was engaged in a full scale civil war. Bush's policies met with criticism, including demands domestically to set a timetable to withdraw troops from Iraq. The 2006 report of the bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by James Baker, concluded that the situation in Iraq was "grave and deteriorating". While Bush admitted that there were strategic mistakes made in regards to the stability of Iraq, he maintained he would not change the overall Iraq strategy.
President Bush shakes hands with Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki.In January 2005, free, democratic elections were held in Iraq for the first time in fifty years. According to Iraqi National Security Advisor Mowaffak al-Rubaie, "This is the greatest day in the history of this country." Bush praised the event as well, saying that the Iraqis "have taken rightful control of their country's destiny." This led to the election of Jalal Talabani as President and Nouri al-Maliki as Prime Minister of Iraq. A referendum to approve a constitution in Iraq were held in October 2005, supported by the majority Shiites and many Kurds.
On January 10, 2007 Bush addressed the nation from the Oval Office regarding the situation in Iraq. In his speech he announced a surge of 21,500 more troops for Iraq, as well as a job program for Iraqis, more reconstruction proposals, and $1.2 billion for these programs. On May 1, 2007, Bush used his veto for only the second time in his presidency, rejecting a congressional bill setting a deadline for the withdrawal of U.S. troops. Five years after the invasion, Bush called the debate over the conflict "understandable" but insisted that a continued U.S. presence there is crucial.
In March 2008 Bush praised the Iraqi government's "bold decision" to launch the Battle of Basra against the Mahdi Army, calling it "a defining moment in the history of a free Iraq". He said he will carefully weigh recommendations from his commanders General David Petraeus and Ambassador Ryan Crocker about how to proceed after the military buildup ends in the summer of 2008. He also praised the Iraqis' legislative achievements, including a pension law, a revised de-Baathification law, a new budget, an amnesty law and a provincial powers measure that, he said, sets the stage for the Iraqi governorate elections, 2008.
On July 31, 2008, Bush announced that with the end of July, American troop deaths had reached their lowest number—thirteen—since the war began in 2003. Due to increased stability in Iraq, Bush announced the withdrawal of additional American forces, which reflected an emerging consensus between the White House and the Pentagon that the war has "turned a corner". He also described what he saw as the success of the 2007 troop surge.
Main article: North Korea–United States relations
Bush publicly condemned Kim Jong-il of North Korea, naming North Korea one of three states in an "axis of evil," and saying that "the United States of America will not permit the world's most dangerous regimes to threaten us with the world's most destructive weapons." Within months, "both countries had walked away from their respective commitments under the U.S.-DPRK Agreed Framework of October 1994." North Korea's October 9, 2006 detonation of a nuclear device further complicated Bush's foreign policy, which centered for both terms of his presidency on "[preventing] the terrorists and regimes who seek chemical, biological or nuclear weapons from threatening the United States and the world." Bush condemned North Korea's claims, reaffirmed his commitment to "a nuclear-free Korean Peninsula," and stated that "transfer of nuclear weapons or material by North Korea to states or non-state entities would be considered a grave threat to the United States," for which North Korea would be held accountable. On May 7, 2007, North Korea agreed to shut down its nuclear reactors immediately pending the release of frozen funds held in a foreign bank account. This was a result of a series of three-way talks initiated by the United States and including China. On September 2, 2007, North Korea agreed to disclose and dismantle all of its nuclear programs by the end of 2007.
President Bush has been supportive of expanding economic sanctions on Syria. In early 2007, the Treasury Department, acting on a June 2005 executive order, froze American bank accounts of Syria's Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology, Electronics Institute, and National Standards and Calibration Laboratory. Bush's order prohibits Americans from doing business with these institutions suspected of helping spread weapons of mass destruction and being supportive of terrorism. Under separate executive orders signed by Bush in 2004 and later 2007, the Treasury Department froze the assets of two Lebanese and two Syrians, accusing them of activities to "undermine the legitimate political process in Lebanon" in November 2007. Those designated included: Assaad Halim Hardan, a member of Lebanon's parliament and current leader of the Syrian Socialist National Party; Wi'am Wahhab, a former member of Lebanon's government (Minister of the Environment) under Prime Minister Omar Karami (2004-2005); Hafiz Makhluf, a colonel and senior official in the Syrian General Intelligence Directorate and a cousin of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad; and Muhammad Nasif Khayrbik, identified as a close adviser to Assad.
On May 10, 2005, Vladimir Arutyunian threw a live hand grenade toward a podium where Bush was speaking at Freedom Square in Tbilisi, Georgia. Georgian President Mikhail Saakashvili was seated nearby. It landed in the crowd about 65 feet (20 m) from the podium after hitting a girl, but it did not detonate. Arutyunian was arrested in July 2005, confessed, was convicted and was given a life sentence in January 2006.
Bush, Mahmoud Abbas, and Ariel Sharon meet at the Red Sea Summit in Aqaba, Jordan, June 4, 2003President Bush withdrew U.S. support for several international agreements, including the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM) with Russia. Bush emphasized a careful approach to the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians; he denounced Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat for his support of violence, but sponsored dialogues between Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and Palestinian National Authority President Mahmoud Abbas. Bush supported Sharon's unilateral disengagement plan, and lauded the democratic elections held in Palestine after Arafat's death.
Bush also expressed U.S. support for the defense of Taiwan following the stand-off in April 2001 with the People's Republic of China over the Hainan Island incident, when an EP-3E Aries II surveillance aircraft collided with one of China's People's Liberation Army Air Force jet, leading to the detention of U.S. personnel.
Ukrainian PM Yulia Tymoshenko meeting with President Bush on April 1, 2008.In 2003–2004, Bush authorized U.S. military intervention in Haiti and Liberia to protect U.S. interests.
In his State of the Union Address in January 2003, Bush outlined a five-year strategy for global emergency AIDS relief, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. Bush announced $15 billion for this effort. This program is believed by some to be a positive aspect of Bush's legacy across the political spectrum.
Bush condemned the attacks by militia forces on the people of Darfur and denounced the killings in Sudan as genocide. Bush said that an international peacekeeping presence was critical in Darfur, but opposed referring the situation to the International Criminal Court.
On June 10, 2007, he met with Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha and became the first president to visit Albania. Bush has voiced his support for the independence of Kosovo.
In 2002, Bush opened the 2002 Winter Olympics. Departing from previous practice, he stood among a group of U.S. athletes rather than from a ceremonial stand or box, saying:
On behalf of a proud, determined, and grateful nation, I declare open the Games of Salt Lake City, celebrating the Olympic Winter Games."
In 2008, in the course of a good-will trip to Asia, he attended the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.
Main article: George W. Bush Supreme Court candidates
Following the announcement of Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's retirement on July 1, 2005, Bush nominated John G. Roberts to succeed her. On September 5, following the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist, this nomination was withdrawn and Bush instead nominated Roberts for Chief Justice to succeed Rehnquist. Roberts was confirmed by the Senate as the 17th Chief Justice on September 29, 2005.
On October 3, 2005, Bush nominated White House Counsel Harriet Miers for O'Connor's position; after facing significant opposition, her name was withdrawn on October 27. Four days later, on October 31, Bush nominated federal appellate judge Samuel Alito for the position and he was confirmed as the 110th Supreme Court Justice on January 31, 2006.
Main article: George W. Bush judicial appointments
In addition to his two Supreme Court appointments, Bush appointed 61 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals and 261 judges to the United States district courts. Each of these numbers, along with his total of 324 judicial appointments, is third in American history, behind both Bill Clinton and Ronald Reagan. Bush also experienced a number of judicial appointment controversies, as 39 people nominated to 27 different federal appellate judgeships were blocked by the Senate Democrats either directly in the Senate Judiciary Committee or on the full Senate floor using a filibuster.
Public image and perception
Main articles: Public image of George W. Bush and Criticism of George W. Bush
See also: Movement to impeach George W. Bush and Fictionalized portrayals of George W. Bush
Gallup/USA Today Bush public opinion polling from February 2001 to January 2009. Blue denotes approve, red disapprove and green unsure. Large increases in approval followed the September 11 attacks, the beginning of the 2003 Iraq conflict and the capture of Saddam Hussein.Raised in West Texas, Bush's accent, vacations on his Texas ranch, and penchant for country metaphors contribute to his folksy, American cowboy image. "I think people look at him and think John Wayne," says Piers Morgan, editor of the British Daily Mirror. It has been suggested that Bush's accent was an active choice, as a way of distinguishing himself from Northeastern intellectuals and anchoring himself to his Texas roots. Both supporters and detractors have pointed to his country persona as reasons for their support or criticism.
Bush's popularity was highly variable during his two terms. He began his presidency with approval ratings near 50%. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, Bush gained an approval rating of 90%, maintaining 80–90% approval for four months after the attacks. It remained over 50% during most of his first term.
In May 2004, Gallup reported that 89% of the Republican electorate approved of Bush. The support waned, however, due mostly to a minority of Republicans' frustration with him on issues of spending, illegal immigration, and Middle Eastern affairs. Within the United States Military, the president was strongly supported in the 2004 presidential elections. When compared with Democratic challenger John Kerry, 73% of military personnel said that they would vote for Bush, versus 18% for Kerry. According to Peter Feaver, a Duke University political scientist who has studied the political leanings of the U.S. military, members of the armed services supported Bush because they found him more likely to prosecute the War in Iraq than Kerry.
Bush's approval rating has been below the 50% mark in AP-Ipsos polling since December 2004. Since then, his approval ratings and approval of his handling of domestic and foreign policy issues have steadily dropped. Bush received heavy criticism for his handling of the Iraq War, his response to Hurricane Katrina and to the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse, NSA warrantless surveillance, Plame affair and Guantanamo Bay detention camp controversies.
Polls conducted in 2006 showed an average of 37% approval ratings for Bush; the lowest for any second term president in this point of term since Harry S. Truman in March 1951, when his approval rating was 28%, which contributed to what Bush called the "thumping" of the Republican Party in the 2006 mid-term elections. Throughout 2007, Bush's approval rating hovered in the mid-thirties percentile, although in a Reuters poll of October 17, 2007, Bush received a lower approval rating of 24%, the lowest point of his presidency.
President Bush thanks American military personnel, September 2007By April 2008, Bush's disapproval ratings were the highest ever recorded in the 70-year history of the Gallup poll for any president, with 69% of those polled disapproving of the job Bush was doing as president and 28% approving. In September 2008, Bush's approval rating ranged from 19%–the lowest ever– to 34% in polls performed by different agencies. and his disapproval rating stood at 69%. Bush left the White House as one of the most unpopular American presidents. He left office second in unpopularity only to Richard Nixon.
In response to his poll numbers and "worst president" accusations, Bush said, "I frankly don't give a damn about the polls... to assume that historians can figure out the effect of the Bush administration before the Bush administration has ended is... in my mind... not an accurate reflection upon how history works."
In 2006, 744 professional historians surveyed by Siena College regarded Bush's presidency as follows: Great: 2%; Near Great: 5%; Average: 11%; Below Average: 24%; Failure: 58%. Thomas Kelly, professor emeritus of American studies at Siena College, said that "In this case, current public opinion polls actually seem to cut the President more slack than the experts do." Similar outcomes were retrieved by two informal surveys done by the History News Network in 2004 and 2008.
A March 13, 2008 poll by the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press reported that 53% of Americans—a slim majority—believe that "the U.S. will ultimately succeed in achieving its goals" in Iraq. That figure was up from 42 percent in September 2007 and the highest since 2006.
Calls for Bush's impeachment were made, though most polls showed a plurality of Americans did not support the president's impeachment. The reasoning behind impeachment usually centered on the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy, the Bush administration's justification for the war in Iraq, and alleged violations of the Geneva Conventions. Representative Dennis Kucinich, a Democrat from Ohio, introduced 35 articles of impeachment on the floor of the House of Representatives against President Bush on June 9, 2008, but Speaker Nancy Pelosi declared that impeachment was "off the table".
Bush's intellectual capacity has been satirized by the media, comedians, and other politicians. Detractors tended to cite linguistic errors made by Bush during his public speeches, which are colloquially termed as Bushisms. Some publications refer to Bush as "the worst president ever."
In 2000 and again in 2004, Time magazine named George W. Bush as its Person of the Year, a title awarded to someone who the editors believe "for better or for worse,... has done the most to influence the events of the year."
President Bush with President Pervez Musharraf of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in late 2006President Bush has been criticized internationally and targeted by the global anti-war and anti-globalization campaigns, particularly for his administration's foreign policy. Views of him within the international community are more negative than previous American Presidents, with France largely opposed to what he advocates and public opinion in Britain, an American ally since World War II, largely against him.
Bush was described as having especially close personal relationships with Tony Blair and Vicente Fox, although formal relations were sometimes strained. Other leaders, such as Afghan president Hamid Karzai, Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni, Spanish prime minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, and Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez, have openly criticized the president. Later in Bush's presidency, tensions arose between himself and Vladimir Putin, which has led to a cooling of their relationship.
In 2006, a majority of respondents in 18 of 21 countries surveyed around the world were found to hold an unfavorable opinion of Bush. Respondents indicated that they judged his administration as negative for world security. In 2007, the Pew Global Attitudes Project reported that during the Bush presidency, attitudes towards the United States and the American people become less favorable around the world.
President Bush presents the Presidential Medal of Freedom to Pope John Paul II during a visit to the Vatican, June 2004A March 2007 survey of Arab opinion conducted by Zogby International and the University of Maryland found that Bush was the most disliked leader in the Arab world. 
The Pew Research Center's 2007 Global Attitudes poll found that out of 47 countries, a majority of respondents expressed "a lot of confidence" or "some confidence" in Bush in only nine countries: Israel, India, Ethiopia, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria and Uganda.
During a June 2007 visit to Albania Bush was greeted enthusiastically. The mostly Islamic Eastern European nation with a population of 3.6 million has troops in both Iraq and Afghanistan and the country's government is highly supportive of American foreign policy. A huge image of the President now hangs in the middle of the capital city of Tirana flanked by Albanian and American flags. The Bush administration's support for the independence of Albanian-majority Kosovo, while endearing him to the Albanians, has troubled U.S. relations with Serbia, leading to the February 2008 torching of the U.S. embassy in Belgrade.
Following the inauguration of Barack Obama, Bush and his family boarded a presidential helicopter typically used as Marine One to travel to Andrews Air Force Base.
Bush, with his wife, then boarded an Air Force Boeing VC-25 for a flight to a homecoming celebration in Midland, Texas. Because he was no longer President, this flight was designated Special Air Mission 28000, instead of Air Force One.
After a welcome rally in Midland, the Bushes returned to their ranch in Crawford, Texas by helicopter. They bought a home in the Preston Hollow neighborhood of Dallas, Texas, where they planned to settle down.
His first speaking engagement occurred on March 17, 2009 in Calgary. He spoke at a private event entitled "A conversation with George W. Bush" at the Telus Convention Centre, and stated that he would not criticize President Obama and hoped he succeeds. At that event he announced that he would write a book that would be an authoritarian account of his presidency.
Electoral history of George W. Bush
George W. Bush's nicknames
Political positions of George W. Bush
List of George W. Bush legislation and programs
Historical rankings of United States Presidents
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^ "Jesus Day proclamation" (JPEG). March 17, 2000. http://www-tc.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/jesus/art/pop_jesusday.jpg. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ The anatomy of a smear campaign - The Boston Globe
^ McCain loses some of his rebel edge - Los Angeles Times
^ Confronting Ghosts of 2000 in South Carolina - New York Times
^ Sack, Kevin and Toner, Robin (August 13, 2000). "The 2000 Campaign: The Record; In Congress, Gore Selected Issues Ready for Prime Time". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E01E5DF133FF930A2575BC0A9669C8B63&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
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^ Gore would have received 267 electoral votes, but a DC elector abstained
^ "FairVote — Little Known Facts". Fairvote.org. http://www.fairvote.org/?page=975#andthelastshallbefirst. Retrieved on 2008-10-20.
^ "An Interview With Karl Rove". NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. PBS. August 1, 2004. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/politics/july-dec04/rove_9-01.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ a b c d e Kirkpatrick, David D (August 25, 2004). "The 2004 Campaign: The Republican Agenda; Draft GOP Platform Backs Bush on Security, Gay Marriage, and Immigration". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C07E0DC123EF936A1575BC0A9629C8B63. Retrieved on 2008-08-20.
^ "2004 Republican Party Platform: on Civil Rights". OnTheIssues.org. http://www.ontheissues.org/Archive/2004_GOP_Platform_Civil_Rights.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-20.
^ After initial comments made in March, there was no statement on the latter issue until June. Rosenberg, Debra (2004-06-28). "A Gay-Marriage Wedge". Newsweek 143 (26): p. 8.
^ "2004 Republican Party Platform: on Energy & Oil". OntheIssues.org. http://www.ontheissues.org/Archive/2004_GOP_Platform_Energy_+_Oil.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-20.
^ Kirkpatrick, David D (August 26, 2004). "The 2004 Campaign: The Platform; Conservatives Mount Stem Cell and Immigration Challenges". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9804EFD9133EF935A1575BC0A9629C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2. Retrieved on 2008-08-20.
^ "And now... four more years". The Guardian. November 4, 2004. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/nov/04/uselections2004.usa16. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Wallace, Kelly (June 7, 2001). "$1.35 trillion tax cut becomes law". CNN InsidePolitics archives. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/ALLPOLITICS/06/07/bush.taxes. Retrieved on 2006-06-30.
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^ "Gross Domestic Product". Bureau of Economic Analysis. http://bea.gov/national/xls/gdpchg.xls. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Price, L (October 25, 2005). "The Boom That Wasn’t: The economy has little to show for $860 billion in tax cuts" (PDF). http://www.epi.org/briefingpapers/168/bp168.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Price, L., Ratner, D (October 26, 2005). "Economy pays price for Bush’s tax cuts". http://www.epi.org/content.cfm/webfeatures_snapshots_20051026. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Historical Prices for Dow Jones Industrial Average". Yahoo! Finance. http://finance.yahoo.com/q/hp?s=%5EDJI.
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^ Luhby, Tami (July 24, 2008). "Middle class: 'On the edge'". CNN. http://money.cnn.com/2008/07/23/news/economy/middle_class/index.htm. Retrieved on 7/24/08.
^ Homa, Ken. [http:\\kenhoma.wordpress.com/2008/08/28/from-clinton-to-bush-after-tax-household-income-is-up/ "From Clinton to Bush, after-tax household income is up !"]. The Homa Files. http:\\kenhoma.wordpress.com/2008/08/28/from-clinton-to-bush-after-tax-household-income-is-up/.
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^ Greenburg, Jan Crawford. Supreme Conflict: The Inside Story of the Struggle for Control of the United States Supreme Court, 2007, Penguin Books, p. 273
^ Debt nation, post two, Small Business Services CPA Group, Inc.
^ So much else happened while people eyed election, The Associated Press, November 9, 2008
^ "Revenues, Outlays, Surpluses, Deficits, and Debt Held by the Public, 1962 to 2006" (PDF). Congressional Budget Office. Archived from the original on 2007-06-28. http://web.archive.org/web/20070628072448/http://www.cbo.gov/budget/historical.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
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^ American Research Group's survey
^ "dollar hits record low against euro, oil prices rally". http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-02/27/content_7679604.htm.
^ Aversa, Jeannine, Employers Slash 63,000 Jobs in February, Most in 5 Years, Feeding Recession Fears,", Associated Press, March 7, 2008. Retrieved July 11, 2008.
^ "Recession in the US 'has arrived'". http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7176255.stm.
^ Stephen Labaton (September 11, 2003). "New Agency Proposed to Oversee Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E06E3D6123BF932A2575AC0A9659C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=print. Retrieved on 2008-10-09.
^ BECKER, JO; SHERYL GAY STOLBERG and STEPHEN LABATON (December 20, 2008). "The Reckoning - Bush’s Philosophy Stoked the Mortgage Bonfire". p. 4 of 6. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/21/business/21admin.html?pagewanted=4&_r=1&sq=bush%20reckoning&st=cse&scp=1.
^ a b "H.R. 1461 (109th): Federal Housing Finance Reform Act of 2005". May 25, 2005. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h109-1461. Landler, Mark and Sheryl Gay Stolberg (September 20, 2008). "Bush can share the blame for financial crisis". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/09/20/business/prexy.php. Retrieved on 2008-10-09.
^ See Lehman Brothers for details and citations.
^ See American International Group for details and citations.
^ "A financial crisis unmatched since the Great Depression". http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2008/mar/18/creditcrunch.marketturmoil1\.
^ "Worst Financial Crisis Since '30s". http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,424361,00.html.
^ Irwin, Neil and Amit R. Paley (October 24, 2008). "Greenspan Says He Was Wrong On Regulation". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/10/23/AR2008102300193.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-09.
^ "Bush hails financial rescue plan". BBC. September 20, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7625727.stm. Retrieved on 2008-09-22.
^ AVERSA, JEANNINE (December 5, 2008). "Employers cut 533K jobs". http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20081205/ap_on_bi_go_ec_fi/financial_meltdown;_ylt=ApmP32Qrkw2ZapRxVB8lzQWyBhIF.
^ "Bureau of Labor Statistics" (PDF). January 9, 2009. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf.
^ Committee on Appropriations —Democratic Staff (September 12, 2006). "President Bush and House Republicans Undermine Life Saving Health Research". United States House of Representatives.
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^ Paley, Amit R (June 6, 2007). "Scores Up Since 'No Child' Was Signed". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/05/AR2007060502684.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-30.
^ W. James Antle III (August 1, 2005). "Leaving No Child Left Behind". The American Conservative. http://www.amconmag.com/article/2005/aug/01/00025/. Retrieved on September 1, 2008.
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^ Greenburg, Jan Crawford, Supreme Conflict: The Inside Story of the Struggle for Control of the United States Supreme Court, 2007, Penguin Books, p. 274
^ Michael Abramowitz and Jonathan Weisman (October 4, 2007). "Bush Vetoes Health Measure". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/03/AR2007100300116_pf.html. Retrieved on October 9, 2007.
^ "Bush Vetoes Child Health Bill Privately". The New York Times. October 4, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/04/washington/04bush.html?hp. Retrieved on September 1, 2008.
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^ "Bush shifts approach on Social Security reform". The Financial Times. April 28, 2005. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/f944a850-b830-11d9-bc7c-00000e2511c8,_i_rssPage=80fdaff6-cbe5-11d7-81c6-0820abe49a01.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
^ Patrick O'Connor (June 1, 2005). "Social Security in Limbo". The Hill. Archived from the original on 2005-12-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20051205090810/http://thehill.com/thehill/export/TheHill/News/Frontpage/060105/social.html.
^ Holly Yeager. "Hurricane impact – Hurricane dims Bush's hopes on Social Security date=September 22, 2005". The Financial Times. http://news.ft.com/cms/s/00d6ee20-2b9f-11da-995a-00000e2511c8.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-09.
^ "Letter from the President to Senators Hagel, Helms, Craig, and Roberts". Office of the Press Secretary. March 13, 2001. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/03/20010314.html.
^ "Summary of the Kyoto Report—Assessment of Economic Impacts". Energy Information Administration. July 16, 2002. http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/kyoto/economic.htm.
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^ "Clear Skies Proposal Weakens the Clean Air Act". The Sierra Club. http://www.sierraclub.org/cleanair/clear_skies.asp. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Interview with President Bush". White House Transcript (Politico). 2008-05-13. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0508/10316_Page3.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-14. "Q. Mr. President, for the record, is global warming real? A. Yes, it is real, sure is."
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^ "NASA Scientist Rips Bush on Global Warming". MSNBC. October 27, 2004. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6341451. Retrieved on 2008-09-01. ; "60 Minutes: Rewriting the Science". CBS News. March 19, 2006. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/03/17/60minutes/main1415985_page2.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Romm, Joe (2006). Hell or High Water. William Morrow. ISBN 9780061172120. OCLC 77537768. ; Romm calls Bush's "don't rush to judgment" and "we need to ask more questions" stance a classic delay tactic. Part 2.
^ "Bush creates world’s biggest ocean preserve". MSNBC. June 16, 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/13300363/. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "The Nature Conservancy Applauds President Bush for Creating World’s Largest Marine Conservation Area in Hawaii". The Nature Conservancy. June 16, 2006. http://www.nature.org/initiatives/marine/press/press2489.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Full text (and video) of 2007 State of the Union address
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^ Reuters/AFP (January 29, 2008). "State of the Union:Bush fights for spotlight". http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,23125585-401,00.html.
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^ "NIH's Role in Federal Policy [Stem Cell Information"]. National Institutes of Health. http://stemcells.nih.gov/policy/NIHFedPolicy.asp.
^ "Stem Cells in Limbo". TIME Magazine. 2003-08-11. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,472876,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
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^ "Bush takes tough talk on immigration to Texas". CNN. November 29, 2005. http://www.cnn.com/2005/POLITICS/11/29/bush.immigration/. Retrieved on 2006-09-09.
^ "Fact Sheet: Border Security and Immigration Reform". The White House. May 17, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/05/20070517-7.html.
^ Garrett, Major and Trish Turner (June 26, 2008). "Senate Votes to Continue Work on Immigration Reform Compromise". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,286705,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-30.
^ "Talk radio helped sink immigration reform]". Politico.com. August 20, 2007. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0807/5449.html.
^ Klaus Marre (June 28, 2007). "46-53, immigration bill goes down in defeat". The Hill. http://thehill.com/leading-the-news/immigration-bill-goes-down-in-defeat-2007-06-28.html.
^ "Senate immigration bill suffers crushing defeat". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/06/28/immigration.congress/index.html. ; "President Bush Disappointed by Congress's Failure to Act on Comprehensive Immigration Reform". The White House. June 28, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/06/20070628-7.html.
^ "The White House Fact Sheet: Improving Border Security and Immigration Within Existing Law"]. The White House. August 10, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/08/20070810.html.
^ The White House (December 19, 2005). Briefing by Attorney General Alberto Gonzales and General Michael Hayden. Press release. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/12/20051219-1.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ U.S. Department of Justice White Paper on NSA Legal Authorities. "Legal Authorities Supporting the Activities of the National Security Agency Described by the President" (PDF). January 19, 2006. http://fl1.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/nsa/dojnsa11906wp.pdf.
^ "Gonzales defends wiretaps amid protest". CNN. January 26, 2006. http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/01/24/nsa.strategy/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-02. ; "Lawyers Group Criticizes Surveillance Program". The Washington Post. February 14, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/13/AR2006021302006.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Judge Asked to Suspend Ruling Against Wiretaps". The Washington Post. February 9, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/01/AR2006090101410.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Court dismisses lawsuit on spying program". Reuters. July 6, 2007. http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN0642400020070706. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Letter from the AG to the Senate leaders". http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/AG_letter_to_Senate_leaders_regarding_FISC_decision_and_conclusion_of_Terrorist_Surveillance_Program.
^ a b "Bush's detainee interrogation and prosecution plan approved by Senate". USA Today. Associated Press. September 28, 2005. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-09-28-congress-terrorism_x.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Rushing Off a Cliff"". The New York Times. September 28, 2006. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/28/opinion/28thu1.html?ex=1317096000&en=3eb3ba3410944ff9&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss.
^ "Bush vetoes bill banning waterboarding". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/03/08/bush.torture.ap/. Retrieved on 2008-04-11.
^ Miller, Greg (February 7, 2008). "Waterboarding is legal, White House says". The Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-torture7feb07,1,3156438.story. Retrieved on 2008-05-30.
^ a b "Cheney Defends U.S. Use Of Waterboarding". CBS News. 2008-02-08. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/02/08/national/main3807334.shtml?source=RSSattr=HOME_3807334. Retrieved on 2008-05-01.
^ Tran, Mark. "CIA admit 'waterboarding' al-Qaida suspects". www.guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/feb/05/india.terrorism. Retrieved on 2008-02-21.
^ "Secret Bush Administration Torture Memo Released Today In Response To ACLU Lawsuit". American Civil Liberties Union. http://www.aclu.org/safefree/torture/34747prs20080401.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-11.
^ Knabb, Richard D; Rhome, Jamie R.; Brown, Daniel P (December 20, 2005). "Tropical Cyclone Report: Hurricane Katrina: August 23–30, 2005". National Hurricane Center.
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^ "Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for Mississippi". The White House. August 28, 2005. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/08/20050828.html. ; "Statement on Federal Emergency Assistance for Alabama". The White House. August 28, 2005. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/08/20050828-3.html.
^ Dyson, Michael Eric (2006). Come Hell or High Water: Hurricane Katrina and the Color of Disaster. Basic Civitas. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-465-01761-4.
^ "Statement on Federal Disaster Assistance for Louisiana". The White House. August 29, 2005. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/08/20050829-2.html.
^ "Press Gaggle with Scott McClellan". The White House. August 31, 2005. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/08/20050831-2.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-14.
^ a b Hurricane Katrina Timeline
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^ "President Bush's remarks to police, firemen, and rescue workers". September 14, 2001. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010914-9.html.
^ Address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People
^ "President Bush's address to joint session of Congress". September 20, 2001. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/09/20/gen.bush.transcript/.
^ a b c d Presidential State of the Union Address January 29, 2002
^ National Security Strategy of the United States, Part V September 2002.
^ President Bush: Job Ratings Polling Report.com
^ Cumings, Bruce; Ervand Abrahamian, Moshe Ma'oz (2006). Inventing the Axis of Evil: The Truth About North Korea, Iran, and Syria. New Press. ISBN 978-1-59558-038-2. OCLC 62225812.
^ Lopez, George, "Perils of Bush's Pre-emptive War Doctrine", Indianapolis Star, October 3, 2003.
^ Prevent Our Enemies from Threatening Us, Our Allies, and Our Friends with Weapons of Mass Destruction
^ NIE: Al Qaeda 'Damaged' Becoming More Scattered CNN, September 26, 2006.
^ Spy Agencies Say Iraq War Hurting U.S. Terror Fight Washington Post, September 24, 2006.
^ a b Shanker, Tom and Eric Schmitt (December 11, 2001). "A Nation Challenged; Military Campaign; Taliban Defeated, Pentagon Asserts, but War Goes On". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B0DE3DC173FF932A25751C1A9679C8B63. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
^ "Fact Sheet: International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan". Center for Defense Information. 2002-02-14. http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/isaf.cfm. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "More Dutch troops for Afghanistan". BBC News. 2006-02-03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4673026.stm. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "U.S. Concludes bin Laden Escaped at Tora Bora Fight". Washington Post. 2002-04-17. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A62618-2002Apr16. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Taliban Appears To Be Regrouped and Well-Funded". Christian Science Monitor. 2003-05-08. http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0508/p01s02-wosc.html?related. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "World Cannot Give Up on Afghanistan, Coalition Officials Say". United States Department of Defense. 2006-06-28. http://www.defenselink.mil/news/NewsArticle.aspx?ID=285. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Frustrated Karzai toughens stance". BBC News. 2006-07-22. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/5107816.stm. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Revived Taliban waging 'full-blown insurgency'". USA Today. 2006-07-22. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-06-19-taliban-afghanistan-cover_x.htm?csp=34. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Baker, Peter (March 11, 2007). "Additional Troop Increase Approved". The Washington Post: p. A11. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/10/AR2007031001397.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
^ "Iraq's Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs". CIA. October 2002. https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/iraq_wmd/Iraq_Oct_2002.htm.
^ The National Security Archive at George Washington University
^ Judis, John B. and Ackerman, Spencer, “The Selling of the Iraq War”, The New Republic, June 2003.
^ Hersh, Seymour M., "The Stovepipe", The New Yorker, October 27, 2003.
^ Associated Press (2003-03-17). "U.S. advises weapons inspectors to leave Iraq". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-03-17-inspectors-iraq_x.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ United Nations (2003-02-13). "Enforcement Measures under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter". United Nations Charter. United Nations. http://www.worldpress.org/specials/iraq/chapterVII.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Schifferes, Steve (2003-03-18). "US names 'coalition of the willing'". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2862343.stm. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Mission Not Accomplished Time Magazine
^ "Colin Powell says Iraq in a 'civil war'". CNN. 2006-11-29. http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/11/29/powell.iraq/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
^ Times Online; agencies (2005-12-14). "Bush: we went to war on faulty intelligence". Times Online. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/iraq/article764622.ece. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "President George W. Bush speaks during a video teleconference with Vice President Dick Cheney, on screen, and military commanders". 2006-10-21. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/10/images/20061021_d-0072-515h.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Bush Reviews Iraq War Strategy as Violence Mounts (Update1)". Bloomberg.com. 2006-10-21. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=at9X1Z7oilgY. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ a b c "Sporadic violence doesn't deter Iraqi voters". CNN. January 31, 2005. http://www.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/meast/01/30/iraq.main/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
^ "Iraq Constitution Passes in Referendum". Associated Press. Fox News. October 25, 2005. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,173349,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
^ "Admitting strategy error, Bush adds Iraq troops". MSNBC. January 11, 2007. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16558652/page/1/.
^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay and Jeff Zeleny, Bush Vetoes Bill Tying Iraq Funds to Exit, The New York Times, May 1, 2007.
^ Bush on anniversary: War in Iraq must go on, CNN, March 19, 2008.
^ Baghdad on lockdown as rockets, bombs fly, CNN, March 28, 2008.
^ Bush: Baghdad's move against Shiite militias a 'bold decision', CNN, March 27, 2008.
^ a b c Myers, Steven Lee and Sabrina Tavernise (August 1, 2008). "Citing Stability in Iraq, Bush Sees Troop Cuts". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/01/world/middleeast/01iraq.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-03.
^ "Pollack, Jonathan. "The United States, North Korea, and the End of the Agreed Framework." Naval War College Review, Summer 2003, Vol. LVI, No. 3.". Archived from the original on 2006-08-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20060818114650/http://www.nwc.navy.mil/press/Review/2003/Summer/art1-su3.htm.
^ President's Statement on North Korea Nuclear Test
^ Associated Press (2007-05-07). "North Korea Ready to Shut Down Reactor 'Immediately'". FOXNews.com. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,270397,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "U.S.: North Korea agrees to shut down nuke facilities". Associated Press. CNN. 2007-09-02. http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/asiapcf/09/02/koreas.nuclear.ap/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
^ "Bush expands sanctions on Syria". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7244088.stm. Retrieved on 2008-02-16.
^ "U.S. Treasury moves to clamp down on Syrian entities accused of spreading weapons", International Herald Tribune online edition, January 4, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
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^ U.S. announces sanctions to combat Syrian influence on Lebanon, International Herald Tribune online edition, November 5, 2007. Retrieved February 17, 2008.
^ "Bush grenade attacker gets life". CNN. 2006-01-11. http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/01/11/georgia.grenade/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
^ Associated Press (January 14, 2009). "News Tip: AIDS Relief in Africa is One of Bush's Most Visible Legacies, Says Duke Expert". Office of News & Communication, Duke University. http://www.dukenews.duke.edu/2009/01/mersontip.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-30.
^ Jim VandeHei (June 2, 2005). "In Break With U.N., Bush Calls Sudan Killings Genocide". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/01/AR2005060101725.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Sheryl Gay Stolberg (June 10, 2007). "Bush is Greeted Warmly in Albania". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/10/world/europe/10cnd-prexy.html?hp.
^ "Bush Hails Kosovo Independence". america.gov. February 19, 2008. http://www.america.gov/st/peacesec-english/2008/February/20080219131902idybeekcm0.4052851.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-19.
^ White House press release
^ "Bush: Olympics "exceeded my expectations"". Associated Press. Associated Press. August 11, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26131736/.
^ "The History Boys". Vanity Fair. http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/features/2007/08/halberstam200708. Retrieved on 2009-01-28.
^ a b "Bush revels in cowboy speak". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2968176.stm. Retrieved on 2009-01-28.
^ "'John Wayne' president has critics". Cable News Network LP. http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/europe/01/30/europe.bush.rodgers.otsc/. Retrieved on 2009-01-28.
^ "Drawl or Nothin'". MACNEIL/LEHRER PRODUCTIONS. http://www.pbs.org/speak/seatosea/americanvarieties/texan/drawl/. Retrieved on 2009-01-29.
^ Roper Center (2006). "Job Performance Ratings for President Bush". http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu/cgi-bin/hsrun.exe/Roperweb/PresJob/PresJob.htx;start=HS_fullresults?pr=Bush. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
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^ "Republicans criticize Rice over Bush Mideast policy". Associated Press. February 15, 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-02-15-rice-request_x.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ a b c Moniz, Dave (October 3, 2004). "Troops in survey back Bush 4-to-1 over Kerry". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/politicselections/nation/president/2004-10-03-bush-troops_x.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-09.
^ a b "Bush's job approval rating creeps up in AP-Ipsos poll". Taipei Times. March 10, 2007. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/world/archives/2007/03/10/2003351719. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
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^ "President Bush—Overall Job Rating". Polling Report. http://www.pollingreport.com/BushJob.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Silva, Mark (March 7, 2007). "Bush's second-term slump". Chicago Tribune. http://newsblogs.chicagotribune.com/news_theswamp/2007/03/bushs_secondter.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-27.
^ "Bush admits Republicans took a "thumping" (Reuters)". November 8, 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-08-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20070810120940/http://elections.us.reuters.com/top/news/usnN07478317.html.
^ "President Bush Job Approval". RealClearPolitics. http://www.realclearpolitics.com/polls/. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Voters unhappy with Bush and Congress". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUSN1624620720071017?feedType=RSS&feedName=topNews.
^ "Presidential Job Approval for Harry Truman". The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/data/popularity.php?pres=43&sort=time&direct=ASC&Submit=DISPLAY. Retrieved on 2008-03-15.
^ Page, Susan. "Disapproval of Bush breaks record". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-04-21-bushrating_N.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-23.
^ American Research Group, Inc polling numbers for September 22, 2008
^ "President Bush – Overall Job Rating in national polls". http://www.pollingreport.com/BushJob.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-22.
^ "The National Economy". Americanresearchgroup.com. http://americanresearchgroup.com/economy/. Retrieved on 2008-10-20.
^ President Bush's Approval Ratings
^ "Bush: Job Ratings". Pollingreport.com. http://www.pollingreport.com/BushJob.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-20.
^ "The National Economy". Americanresearchgroup.com. http://americanresearchgroup.com/economy/. Retrieved on 2008-10-20.
^ "Bush Job Approval Highest in Gallup History". Gallup.com. http://www.gallup.com/poll/4924/Bush-Job-Approval-Highest-Gallup-History.aspx. Retrieved on 2008-10-20.
^ "Bush's 69% disapproval rating Highest in Gallup History". http://www.gallup.com/poll/106741/Bushs-69-Job-Disapproval-Rating-Highest-Gallup-History.aspx. Retrieved on 2008-01-23.
^ http://www.gallup.com/poll/113770/Bush-Presidency-Closes-34-Approval-61-Disapproval.aspx Gallup - 6th paragraph
^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/barackobama/4292377/Barack-Obama-inauguration-President-Elect-invokes-spirit-of-Martin-Luther-King.html (paragraph 8 - not including caption for video)
^ "The Worst President in History". Rolling Stone. 2006. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/profile/story/9961300/the_worst_president_in_history. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Defending the home front". The Australian. 2007. http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,22070368-28737,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Transcript: President Bush on 'FOX News Sunday'". Fox News. February 11, 2008. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,330234,00.html.
^ a b Experts: Bush Presidency Is A Failure; Little Chance To Improve Ranking (PDF). Siena Research Institute. May 1, 2006. Retrieved June 6, 2008
^ McElvaine, Robert S. "Historians vs. George W. Bush". May 17, 2004. Retrieved June 6, 2008.
^ McElvaine, Robert S. "HNN Poll: 61% of Historians Rate the Bush Presidency Worst". April 1, 2008. Retrieved June 6, 2008
^ a b "Support For Iraq War Highest Since 2006". CBS. March 13, 2008. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/03/13/politics/politico/main3933699.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-05-29.
^ Joyner, James (December 12, 2005). "Rasmussen Poll: Third of Americans Want Bush Impeached". OutsideTheBeltway.com, OTB Media. http://www.outsidethebeltway.com/archives/third_of_americans_want_bush_impeached/. Retrieved on 2008-05-29.
^ John W. Dean (December 30, 2005). "George W. Bush as the New Richard M. Nixon: Both Wiretapped Illegally, and Impeachably". http://writ.corporate.findlaw.com/dean/20051230.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Robert Scheer (July 18, 2003). "A Firm Basis for Impeachment". http://www.alternet.org/story/16434. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Matthew Rothschild (2006-03-08). "Grounds for Impeachment". CommonDreams.org. http://www.commondreams.org/views06/0308-33.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Kucinich Calls For Bush Impeachment
^ Baker, Peter (August 20, 2006). "Pundits Renounce The President". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/19/AR2006081900568_pf.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Walters, Simon (August 19, 2006). "Blair 'feels betrayed by Bush on Lebanon'". The Daily Mail. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-401414/Blair-feels-betrayed-Bush-Lebanon.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01. ; "Bush gets bad rap on intelligence". The St. Cloud Times. January 14, 2001. http://www.csbsju.edu/uspp/Election/bush011401.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Jacob Weisberg (November 4, 2000). "Bush, in his own words". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2000/nov/04/uselections2000.usa5. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "The Worst President in History". 2006. http://www.rollingstone.com/news/profile/story/9961300/the_worst_president_in_history?year=2006. Retrieved on 2006-04-28.
^ "Worst.President.Ever". 2008. http://harpers.org/archive/2008/04/hbc-90002804?year=2008. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.
^ "The Worst President Ever". 2007. http://www.thenation.com/doc/20070226/howl?year=2007. Retrieved on 2007-02-17.
^ "The Worst US President Ever?". 2005. http://www.commondreams.org/views05/0708-27.htm?year=2005. Retrieved on 2005-07-08.
^ "He's The Worst Ever — washingtonpost.com". Washingtonpost.com. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/01/AR2006120101509.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-20.
^ Nancy Gibbs (2000). "Person of the Year". TIME Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,998831,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-19. ; Nancy Gibbs and John F. Dickerson (2004). "Person of the Year". TIME Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1009814-1,00.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
^ M. Overhaus, S. Schieder (2002). "Die außenpolitischen Positionen der Parteien im Bundestagswahlkampf 2002" (in German) (PDF). Politik im Netz 3. http://www.deutsche-aussenpolitik.de/daparchive/dateien/2002/01300.pdf.
^ CBC News (2005-12-14). "Was the American ambassador meddling in a Canadian election?". CBC.ca Reality Check Team. http://www.cbc.ca/canadavotes/realitycheck/americans.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "French see Bush as the ugly American"
^ Keeping the U.S. at Bay, Mexican Presidential Candidate Looks to Move Past Fox's Failures Marcela Sanchez (March 3, 2006).
^ Mexico's President Snubs Bush, Vicente Fox Cancels Visit To Bush Ranch To Protest Execution (August 15, 2002).
^ Row over Bush security as Blair defends visit Ewen MacAskill, Hugh Muir, and Julian Borger in Washington, The Guardian (November 11, 2003).
^ "Afghan Leader Criticizes U.S. on Conduct of War"
^ SudanTribune article: Uganda’s president criticizes Bush administration’s handling of war in Iraq
^ Spanish leader accuses Bush and Blair|World news|The Guardian
^ Ed Pilkington in New York. "Chávez attacks 'devil' Bush in UN speech|World news|The Guardian". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/sep/21/usa.venezuela. Retrieved on 2008-10-20.
^ Condon, George E. Jr. (2006-07-21). "Bush, White House now leery of Putin as Russian turns back on democracy". San Diego Union Tribune. http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/world/20060721-9999-1n21usrussia.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "In 18 of 21 Countries Polled, Most See Bush’s Reelection as Negative for World Security". BBC World Service and Program on International Policy Attitudes. 2004. http://www.globescan.com/news_archives/bbcpoll.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Polls: World Not Pleased With Bush". Associated Press. March 4, 2004. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/03/04/world/main604135.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ Pew Global Attitudes project (1) (2)
^ Peter Kiernan (March 1, 2007). "Middle East Opinion: Iran Fears Aren't Hitting the Arab Street". World Politics Review Exclusive. http://worldpoliticsreview.com/Article.aspx?id=594.
^ "Pew Global Attitudes Project: Spring 2007, Survey of 47 Publics, Final 2007 Comparative Topline" (PDF). Pew Research Center. June 27, 2007. http://pewglobal.org/reports/pdf/256topline.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Bush greeted as hero in Albania". BBC. June 10, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6738055.stm. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Bush Gets Warm Reception in Albania". NPR. June 10, 2007. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=10919634. Retrieved on 2008-09-01.
^ "Serbia: U.S. to blame for violence". CNN. 2008-02-24. http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/02/23/serbia.kosovo/index.html.
^ a b "Ex-President Bush and Wife Leave Washington for Texas". Associated Press. Fox News. January 20, 2009. http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/01/20/ex-president-bush-wife-leave-washington-texas/. Retrieved on 2009-01-20.
^ Enthusiastic crowds welcome Bush back to Texas
^ Allen, Mike (2009-03-18). "Bush promises not to attack Obama". Politico. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0309/20160.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-18.
^ Pensito Review
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"Republican National Committee biography". Archived from the original on 2007-04-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20070414215908/http://www.gop.com/About/Bio.aspx?id=1.
Extensive essay on George W. Bush and shorter essays on each member of his cabinet and First Lady from the Miller Center of Public Affairs
George W. Bush at the Internet Movie Database
Ann Richards Governor of Texas
1995 – 2000 Succeeded by
Bill Clinton President of the United States
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009 Succeeded by
France Chair of the G8
2004 Succeeded by
Party political offices
Clayton Williams Republican nominee for Governor of Texas
1994, 1998 Succeeded by
Bob Dole Republican Party presidential candidate
2000, 2004 Succeeded by
Order of precedence in the United States of America
Former President of the United States United States order of precedence
Former President of the United States Succeeded by
U.S. ambassadors (while at their posts; otherwise Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton)
[hide]v • d • eGeorge W. Bush
Family Bush family · Laura Bush (spouse) · George H. W. Bush (father) · Barbara Bush (mother) · Jenna Bush (daughter) · Barbara Bush (daughter)
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Life Early life · Professional life · Governorship of Texas · Religious faith
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Chairpersons of RNC Morgan · Raymond · Ward · Claflin · Morgan · Chandler · Cameron · Jewell · Sabin · Jones · Quay · Clarkson · Carter · Hanna · Payne · Cortelyou · New · Hitchcock · Hill · Rosewater · Hilles · Hays · Adams · Butler · Work · Huston · Fess · Sanders · Fletcher · Hamilton · Martin · Walsh · Spangler · Brownell · Reece · Scott · Gabrielson · Summerfield · Roberts · Hall · Alcorn · T. B. Morton · Miller · Burch · Bliss · R. Morton · Dole · Bush · Smith · Brock · Richards · Fahrenkopf · Atwater · Yeutter · Bond · Barbour · Nicholson · Gilmore · Racicot · Gillespie · Mehlman · Duncan · Steele Ulysses S. Grant's first administration included Elihu Washburne (secretary of State), George Boutwell (Secretary of the Treasury), William T. Sherman (Secretary of War), John Creswell (Postmaster General) and Ebenezer Hoar (Attorney General). During his second term his administration included Hamilton Fish (Secretary of State), George H. Williams (Attorney General), William Belknap (Secretary of War) and Zachariah Chandler (Secretary of the Interior).
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Affiliated organizations Senate Republican Conference · House Republican Conference · National Republican Senatorial Committee · National Republican Congressional Committee · Republican Governors Association · College Republicans · Log Cabin Republicans · Republicans Abroad · Republican Liberty Caucus · Republican Main Street Partnership · Republican Study Committee · Young Republicans · Republican Majority for Choice · The Wish List · Republicans for Environmental Protection
Related articles History
[show]v • d • eGovernors and Lieutenant Governors of Texas
Governors J. P. Henderson · Wood · Bell · J. W. Henderson · Pease · Runnels · Houston · Clark · Lubbock · Murrah · Hamilton · Throckmorton · Pease · Davis · Coke · Hubbard · Roberts · Ireland · Ross · Hogg · Culberson · Sayers · Lanham · Campbell · Colquitt · J. Ferguson · Hobby · Neff · M. Ferguson · Moody · Sterling · M. Ferguson · Allred · O'Daniel · Stevenson · Jester · Shivers · Daniel · Connally · Smith · Briscoe · Clements · White · Clements · Richards · Bush · Perry
Governors Horton · Greer · Henderson · Dickson · Runnels · Lubbock · Clark · Crockett · Stockdale · Jones · J.W. Flanagan · Campbell · D.W. Flanagan · Fountain · Pickett · Hubbard · Sayers · Storey · Martin · Gibbs · Wheeler · Pendleton · Crane · Jester · Browning · Neal · A.B. Davidson · Mayes · Hobby, Sr. · Johnson · L. Davidson · T.W. Davidson · Miller · Witt · Woodul · Stevenson · J.L. Smith · Shivers · Ramsey · P. Smith · Barnes · Hobby, Jr. · Bullock · Perry · Ratliff · Dewhurst
v • d • e Cabinet of President George W. Bush (2001–2009)
Secretary of State Colin Powell (2001–2005) • Condoleezza Rice (2005–2009)
Secretary of the Treasury Paul O'Neill (2001–2002) • John Snow (2002–2006) • Henry Paulson (2006–2009)
Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld (2001–2006) • Robert Gates (2006–present)
Attorney General John Ashcroft (2001–2005) • Alberto Gonzales (2005–2007) • Michael Mukasey (2007–2009)
Secretary of the Interior Gale Norton (2001–2006) • Dirk Kempthorne (2006–2009)
Secretary of Agriculture Ann Veneman (2001–2005) • Mike Johanns (2005–2007) • Ed Schafer (2008–2009)
Secretary of Commerce Donald Evans (2001–2005) • Carlos Gutierrez (2005–2009)
Secretary of Labor Elaine Chao (2001–2009)
Secretary of Health and
Human Services Tommy Thompson (2001–2005) • Mike Leavitt (2005–2009)
Secretary of Education Rod Paige (2001–2005) • Margaret Spellings (2005–2009)
Secretary of Housing and
Urban Development Mel Martinez (2001–2003) • Alphonso Jackson (2003–2008) • Steve Preston (2008–2009)
Secretary of Transportation Norman Mineta (2001–2006) • Mary Peters (2006–2009)
Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham (2001–2005) • Samuel Bodman (2005–2009)
Secretary of Veterans Affairs Anthony Principi (2001–2005) • Jim Nicholson (2005–2007) • James Peake (2007–2009)
Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge (2003–2005) • Michael Chertoff (2005–2009)
Vice President Dick Cheney (2001–2009)
White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card (2001–2006) • Joshua Bolten (2006–2009)
Administrator of the
Environmental Protection Agency Christine Whitman (2001–2003) • Mike Leavitt (2003–2005) • Stephen Johnson (2005–2009)
Director of the Office of
Management and Budget Mitch Daniels (2001–2003) • Joshua Bolten (2003–2006) • Rob Portman (2006–2007) • Jim Nussle (2007–2009)
Director of National Drug
Control Policy John Walters (2001–2009)
Trade Representative Robert Zoellick (2001–2005) • Rob Portman (2005–2006) • Susan Schwab (2006–2009)
Director of the Federal
Emergency Management Agency Joe Allbaugh (2001–2003)
[show]v • d • eTime Persons of the Year
Jimmy Carter (1976) · Anwar Sadat (1977) · Deng Xiaoping (1978) · Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) · Ronald Reagan (1980) · Lech Wałęsa (1981) · The Computer (1982) · Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983) · Peter Ueberroth (1984) · Deng Xiaoping (1985) · Corazon Aquino (1986) · Mikhail Gorbachev (1987) · The Endangered Earth (1988) · Mikhail Gorbachev (1989) · George H. W. Bush (1990) · Ted Turner (1991) · Bill Clinton (1992) · “The Peacemakers”: Yasser Arafat / F.W. de Klerk / Nelson Mandela / Yitzhak Rabin (1993) · Pope John Paul II (1994) · Newt Gingrich (1995) · David Ho (1996) · Andrew Grove (1997) · Bill Clinton / Kenneth Starr (1998) · Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) · George W. Bush (2000)
Complete roster · 1927–1950 · 1951–1975 · 1976–2000 · 2001–present
[show]v • d • eTime Persons of the Year
Rudolph Giuliani (2001) · The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley / Sherron Watkins (2002) · The American Soldier (2003) · George W. Bush (2004) · The Good Samaritans: Bono / Bill Gates / Melinda Gates (2005) · You (2006) · Vladimir Putin (2007) · Barack Obama (2008)
Complete roster · 1927–1950 · 1951–1975 · 1976–2000 · 2001–present
[show]v • d • eBush family
Prescott Bush ancestors
Dorothy Walker Bush ancestors Samuel Prescott Bush (1863–1948) • James Smith Bush (1825–1889) • Obadiah Newcomb Bush
George Herbert Walker (1875–1953) • David Davis Walker (1840–1918) • George E. Walker (1797–1864) • Thomas Walker (1758–1799)
Samuel P. Bush & Flora Sheldon Prescott Sheldon Bush (m.) Dorothy Wear Walker • Robert Bush • Mary House Bush • Margaret Clement Bush • James Bush
Prescott Bush (1895–1972) Prescott Bush Jr. • George Herbert Walker Bush (m.) Barbara Pierce • Nancy Walker Bush Ellis • Jonathan James Bush • William Henry Trotter Bush
George H. W. Bush (1924–)
Jonathan Bush (1931–) George Walker Bush (m.) Laura Lane Welch • Pauline Robinson Bush • Jeb Bush (m.) Columba Garnica Gallo • Neil Mallon Bush (m.) Sharon Smith • Marvin Pierce Bush (m.) Margaret Molster • Dorothy Walker Bush (m. 2nd) Robert P. Koch
Billy Bush (m.) Sydney Davis • Jonathan S. Bush
George W. Bush (1946–)
Jeb Bush (1953–)
Neil Bush (1955–)
Dorothy Koch (1959-) Barbara Pierce Bush • Jenna Welch Bush (m.) Henry Hager
George Prescott Bush • Noelle Bush
Sam LeBlond • Ellie LeBlond • Robert Koch • Gigi Koch
See also David Davis
The Bush Compound • Buckeye Steel Castings • G. H. Walker & Co. • The Family: The Real Story of the Bush Dynasty • Political line
[show]v • d • eTexas Rangers
Formerly the Washington Senators • Based in Arlington, Texas (Dallas–Ft. Worth)
The Franchise Expansion Draft • Team Records • Awards & League Leaders • Broadcasters • Managers • Players • Roster • Rangers Captain
Ballparks Griffith Stadium • RFK Stadium • Arlington Stadium • Rangers Ballpark in Arlington
Spring Training: Surprise Stadium
Important Figures Tom Vandergriff • Ted Williams • Mike Hargrove • Billy Martin • Ferguson Jenkins • Bobby Valentine • George W. Bush • Nolan Ryan • Kenny Rogers • Juan González • Pudge Rodriguez • Alex Rodriguez • Johnny Oates • Michael Young • Hank Blalock • Josh Hamilton
Retired Numbers 26 • 34 • 42
Key Personnel Owner: Tom Hicks • General Manager: Jon Daniels • Manager: Ron Washington
Minors Oklahoma City RedHawks (AAA) • Frisco RoughRiders (AA) • Bakersfield Blaze (A) • Hickory Crawdads (A) • Spokane Indians (A) • AZL Rangers (Rookie)
Division Titles Western: 1996 • 1998 • 1999 • Wild Card: none
[show] Seasons (49)
1960s 1960 • 1961 • 1962 • 1963 • 1964 • 1965 • 1966 • 1967 • 1968 • 1969
1970s 1970 • 1971 • 1972 • 1973 • 1974 • 1975 • 1976 • 1977 • 1978 • 1979
1980s 1980 • 1981 • 1982 • 1983 • 1984 • 1985 • 1986 • 1987 • 1988 • 1989
1990s 1990 • 1991 • 1992 • 1993 • 1994 • 1995 • 1996 • 1997 • 1998 • 1999
2000s 2000 • 2001 • 2002 • 2003 • 2004 • 2005 • 2006 • 2007 • 2008 • 2009
[show]v • d • ePrincipal Owners of the Texas Rangers Franchise
Washington Senators (1961-1971) Elwood Richard Quesada • James Johnson & James Lemon • James Lemon • Bob Short
Texas Rangers (1972-present) Bob Short • Brad Corbett • Eddie Chiles • George W. Bush • Tom Hicks
DATE OF BIRTH
PLACE OF BIRTH
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PLACE OF DEATH
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