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Osama Bin Laden اسامه بن لادن

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Osama bin Laden
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Usāmah bin Muḥammad bin `Awaḍ bin Lādin
(Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن‎)
10 March 1957 (1957-03-10) (aged 52)

Osama bin Laden as seen in the December, 2001 Al Jazeera video.
Place of birth Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Battles/wars Afghan Jihad
War on Terrorism
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Controversies related to Islam and Muslims

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First Sikh Holocaust (1746)

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Notable modern critics
Ayaan Hirsi Ali · Irshad Manji
Daniel Pipes · Ibn Warraq
Philippe de Villiers · Atatürk
Geert Wilders · Oriana Fallaci
Robert Spencer · Theo van Gogh
Afshin Ellian · Salman Rushdie
Ahmad Kasravi · Taha Hussein

Muslim related events since 2001
September 11 attacks
War on Terrorism
Mecca girls' school fire
Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons
Qur'an desecration controversy
Beheadings of three Christian girls
CPT hostage crisis
Fox journalists kidnapping
Egyptian ID card controversy
Qatif girl rape case
Flying Imams controversy
French headscarf ban
Imam Rapito affair
Knighthood of Salman Rushdie
Pope Benedict XVI Islam controversy
Sudanese teddy bear blasphemy case
Muhammad cartoons
Fitna (film)
The Jewel of Medina

v • d • e
"Osama" redirects here. For other uses, see Usama (name).
"bin Laden" redirects here. For other uses, see bin Laden (disambiguation).
Osama bin Laden (Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن transliteration: Usāmah bin Muḥammad bin `Awaḍ bin Lādin; with numerous variations) (born March 10, 1957) is a member of the prominent Saudi bin Laden family and the founder of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda, best known for the September 11 attacks on the United States. Al-Qaeda has also been associated with numerous other mass casualty attacks against civilian targets.

Since 2001, Osama bin Laden and his organization have been major targets of the United States' War on Terrorism. Bin Laden and fellow Al-Qaeda leaders are believed to be hiding in the border region between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Contents [hide]
1 Usage variations of bin Laden's name
2 Childhood, education and personal life
3 Beliefs and ideology
4 Militant activity
4.1 Mujahideen in Afghanistan
4.2 Formation and structuring of Al-Qaeda
4.3 Balkan wars
4.4 Sudan
4.5 Early attacks and aid for attacks
4.6 September 11, 2001 attacks
5 Criminal charges
6 Attempted capture by the United States
6.1 Clinton Administration
6.2 Bush Administration
7 Current whereabouts
8 Reports of his death
9 Criticism
10 See also
11 Notes
12 References
13 External links

Usage variations of bin Laden's name
Because there is no universally accepted standard in the West for transliterating Arabic words and names into English, bin Laden's name is transliterated in many ways. The version often used by most English-language mass media is Osama bin Laden. Most American government agencies, including the FBI and CIA, use either "Usama bin Laden" or "Usama bin Ladin", both of which are often abbreviated to UBL. Less common renderings include "Ussamah Bin Ladin" and "Oussama Ben Laden" (French-language mass media). The latter part of the name can also be found as "Binladen" or "Binladin".

Strictly speaking, Arabic linguistic conventions dictate that he be referred to as "Osama" or "Osama bin Laden", not "bin Laden," as "Bin Laden" is not used as a surname in the Western manner, but simply as part of his name, which in its entirety means "Osama, son of Mohammed, son of 'Awad, son of Laden". However, the bin Laden family (or "Binladin", as they prefer to be known) do generally use the name as a surname in the Western style. Consequently "bin Laden" has become nearly universal in Western references to him, Arabic convention notwithstanding.

Bin Laden also has several commonly used aliases and nicknames, including the Prince, the Sheikh, Al-Amir, Abu Abdallah, Sheikh Al-Mujahid, the Lion Sheik,[1] the Director, Imam Mehdi and Samaritan.[2]

Childhood, education and personal life
Main article: Childhood, education and personal life of Osama bin Laden
See also: Bin Laden family
Osama bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.[3] In a 1998 interview, he gave his birth date as 10 March 1957.[4] His father Muhammed Awad bin Laden was a wealthy businessman with close ties to the Saudi royal family.[5] Osama bin Laden was born the only son of Muhammed bin Laden's tenth wife, Hamida al-Attas.[6] Osama's parents divorced soon after he was born; Osama's mother then married Muhammad al-Attas. The couple had four children, and Osama lived in the new household with three stepbrothers and one stepsister.[7]

Bin Laden was raised as a devout Wahhabi Muslim.[8] From 1968 to 1976 he attended the "élite" secular Al-Thager Model School.[9] Bin Laden studied economics and business administration[10] at King Abdulaziz University. Some reports suggest bin Laden earned a degree in civil engineering in 1979,[11] or a degree in public administration in 1981.[12] Other sources describe him as having left university during his third year,[13] never completing a college degree, though "hard working."[14] At university, bin Laden's main interest was religion, where he was involved in both "interpreting the Quran and jihad" and charitable work.[15] He also writes poetry.[16]

In 1974, at the age of 17, bin Laden married his first wife Najwa Ghanem at Latakia.[17][18] According to CNN national security correspondent David Ensore, as of 2002 bin Laden had married four women and fathered roughly 25 or 26 children.[19] Other sources report that he has fathered anywhere from 12 to 24 children.[20]

Beliefs and ideology
Main article: Beliefs and ideology of Osama bin Laden
Bin Laden believes that the restoration of Sharia law will set things right in the Muslim world, and that all other ideologies—"pan-Arabism, socialism, communism, democracy"—must be opposed.[21] These beliefs, along with violent expansive jihad, have sometimes been called Qutbism. [22] He believes Afghanistan under the rule of Mullah Omar's Taliban was "the only Islamic country" in the Muslim world.[23] Bin Laden has consistently dwelt on the need for jihad to right what he believes are injustices against Muslims perpetrated by the United States and sometimes by other non-Muslim states,[24] the need to eliminate the state of Israel, and the necessity of forcing the US to withdraw from the Middle East. He has also called on Americans to "reject the immoral acts of fornication (and) homosexuality, intoxicants, gambling, and usury," in an October 2002 letter.[25]

Probably the most controversial part of Bin Laden's ideology is that civilians, including women and children, can be killed in jihad.[26][27] Bin Laden is antisemitic, and has delivered warnings against alleged Jewish conspiracies: "These Jews are masters of usury and leaders in treachery. They will leave you nothing, either in this world or the next."[28] Shia have been listed along with "Heretics, ... America and Israel," as the four principal "enemies of Islam" at ideology classes of bin Laden's Al-Qaeda organization.[29]

In keeping with Wahhabi beliefs,[30] bin Laden opposes music on religious grounds,[31] and his attitude towards technology is mixed. He is interested in "earth-moving machinery and genetic engineering of plants", on the one hand, but rejects "chilled water" on the other.[32] His viewpoints and methods of achieving them have led to him been designated as a terrorist by scholars,[33][34] journalists from the New York Times,[35][36]the British Broadcasting Corporation,[37] and Qatari news station Al Jazeera,[38] analysts such as Peter Bergen,[39]Michael Scheuer,[40] Marc Sageman,[41] and Bruce Hoffman[42][43] and was indicted on terrorism charges by law enforcement agencies in Madrid, New York City, and Tripoli.[44]

Militant activity
Main article: Militant activity of Osama bin Laden

Mujahideen in Afghanistan
After leaving college in 1979 bin Laden joined Abdullah Azzam to fight the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan[45] and lived for a time in Peshawar.[46] By 1984, with Azzam, bin Laden established Maktab al-Khadamat, which funneled money, arms and Muslim fighters from around the Arabic world into the Afghan war. Through al-Khadamat, bin Laden's inherited family fortune[47] paid for air tickets and accommodation, dealt with paperwork with Pakistani authorities and provided other such services for the jihad fighters. During this time bin Laden met his future al-Qaeda collaborator Ayman al-Zawahiri, who encouraged Osama to split away from Abdullah Azzam. Osama established a camp in Afghanistan, and with other volunteers fought the Soviets.

Formation and structuring of Al-Qaeda
By 1988, bin Laden had split from Maktab al-Khidamat; while Azzam acted as support for Afghan fighters, Laden wanted a more military role. One of the main leading points to the split and the creation of al-Qaeda was the insistence of Azzam that Arab fighters be integrated among the Afghan fighting groups instead of forming their separate fighting force.[48] Bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia in 1990 as a hero of jihad, who along with his Arab legion, "had brought down the mighty superpower" of the Soviet Union.[49] However, during this time Iraq invaded Kuwait and Laden met Sultan, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, and told him not to depend on non-Muslim troops and offered to help defend Saudi Arabia. Bin Laden was rebuffed and publicly denounced Saudi Arabia's dependence on the US military. Bin Laden's criticism of the Saudi monarchy led that government to attempt to silence him.

Balkan wars
One of the former State Department officials described Bosnia and Herzegovina of that time as a safe haven for terrorists, after it was revealed that militant elements of the former Sarajevo government were protecting extremists include hard-core terrorists, some with ties to Osama bin Laden.[50] In 1997, Rzeczpospolita, one of the largest Polish daily newspapers, reported that intelligence services of the Nordic-Polish SFOR Brigade suspected that a center for training terrorists from Islamic countries was located in the Bocina Donja village near Maglaj in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1992, thousands of volunteers joined an "all-mujahedeen unit" called El Moujahed, which was headquartered in Zenica in an abandoned hillside factory, a compound with a hospital and prayer hall. According to Middle East intelligence reports. Bin Laden financed small convoys of recruits from the Arab world through his businesses in Sudan. Among them was Karim Said Atmani who was identified by authorities as the document forger for a group of Algerians accused of plotting the bombings in the USA.[51] He is a former roommate of Ahmed Ressam, the man arrested at the Canadian-U.S. border in mid-December 1999 with a car full of nitroglycerin and bomb-making materials.[52][53] He was convicted of colluding with Osama bin Laden by a French court.[54] A Bosnian government search of passport and residency records, conducted at the urging of the United States, revealed other former mujahideen who are linked to the same Algerian group or to other suspected terrorist groups and who have lived in this area 60 miles north of Sarajevo, the capital, in the past few years. Khalil al-Deek, was arrested in Jordan in late December 1999 on suspicion of involvement in a plot to blow up tourist sites; a second man with Bosnian citizenship, Hamid Aich, lived in Canada at the same time as Atmani and worked for a charity associated with Osama Bin Laden. In its June 26, 1997 Report on the bombing of the Al Khobar building in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, the New York Times noted that those arrested confessed to serving with Bosnian Muslims forces. Further, the terrorists also admitted to ties with Osama Bin Laden. In 1999 it was revealed that Osama bin Laden and his Tunisian assistant Mehrez Aodouni were granted citizenship and Bosnian passport in 1993 by the Government in Sarajevo. This information was denied by Bosnian government following the 9/11 attacks but it was later found out that Aodouni was arrested in Turkey and that at that time he possessed the Bosnian passport. Following this revelation new explanation was given that bin Laden "did not personally collect his Bosnian passport" and that officials at the Bosnian embassy in Vienna, which issued the passport, could not have known who bin Laden was at the time.[55][56][57] The Bosnian daily Oslobođenje published in 2001 that three men, believed linked to be linked to Osama Bin Laden, were arrested in Sarajevo in July 2001. The three, one of whom was identified as Imad El Misri, were Egyptian nationals. The paper said that two of the suspects were holding Bosnian passports.[58]

In 1998 it was reported that bin Laden is operating his terrorist network out of Albania. The Charleston Gazette quoted Fatos Klosi, the head of the Albanian intelligence service, as saying a network run by Saudi exile Osama Bin Laden sent units to fight in the Serbian province of Kosovo. Confirmation of these activities came from Claude Kader, a French national who said he was a member of Bin Laden's Albanian network. He claimed he had visited Albania to recruit and arm fighters for Kosovo.[59] In 2000 bin Laden was operating from Kosovo planning the terrorist activities during the Insurgency in the Preševo Valley.[60]

Connections between bin Laden and National Liberation Army, an insurgent, terrorist, and guerrilla organization that operated in the Republic of Macedonia in 2001 were also drawn. According to the Washington Times the NLA was fighting to keep control over the region’s drug trafficking, which had grown into a large, lucrative enterprise since the Kosovo war and that in addition to drug money, the NLA also had another prominent venture capitalist, Osama Bin Laden. According to a documents written by the chief commander of the Macedonian Security Forces, bin Laden was financing the rebel group through a representative in Macedonia. Osama Bin Laden, paid $6 to $7 million for the needs of the National Liberation Army through his representative. Osama Bin Laden was planning to gain control over Macedonia so that he could control the distribution of oil to the United States through the pipeline that was planned to stretch from Bulgaria to Albania ports.[61]

Bin Laden moved to Sudan in 1992 and established a new base for Mujahideen operations in Khartoum. Due to bin Laden's continuous verbal assault on King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, on 5 March 1994 Fahd sent an emissary to Sudan demanding bin Laden's passport. His family was persuaded to cut off his monthly stipend, the equivalent of $7 million a year.[62] By now bin Laden was strongly associated with Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), which made up the core of al-Qaeda. In 1995 the EIJ attempted to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The attempt failed and the EIJ was expelled from Sudan.

The 9/11 Commission Report concludes,

"In February 1996, Sudanese officials began approaching officials from the United States and other governments, asking what actions of theirs might ease foreign pressure. In secret meetings with Saudi officials, Sudan offered to expel bin Laden to Saudi Arabia and asked the Saudis to pardon him. US officials became aware of these secret discussions, certainly by March. Saudi officials apparently wanted bin Laden expelled from Sudan. They had already revoked his citizenship, however, and would not tolerate his presence in their country. Also bin Laden may have no longer felt safe in Sudan, where he had already escaped at least one assassination attempt that he believed to have been the work of the Egyptian or Saudi regimes, or both."

The 9/11 Commission Report further states,

"In late 1995, when Bin Laden was still in Sudan, the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) learned that Sudanese officials were discussing with the Saudi government the possibility of expelling Bin Laden. US Ambassador Timothy Carney encouraged the Sudanese to pursue this course. The Saudis, however, did not want Bin Laden, giving as their reason their revocation of his citizenship. Sudan’s minister of defense, Fatih Erwa, has claimed that Sudan offered to hand Bin Laden over to the United States. The Commission has found no credible evidence that this was so. Ambassador Carney had instructions only to push the Sudanese to expel Bin Laden. Ambassador Carney had no legal basis to ask for more from the Sudanese since, at the time, there was no indictment outstanding."[63]

In May 1996, under increasing pressure from Saudi Arabia, Egypt and the United States on Sudan, bin Laden returned to Jalalabad, Afghanistan aboard a chartered jet and forged a close relationship with Mullah Mohammed Omar.[64][65] In Afghanistan, bin Laden and Al-Qaeda raised money from "donors from the days of the Soviet jihad", and from Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).[66] When Bin Laden left Sudan, he and his organization were significantly weakened, despite his ambitions and organizational skills.[67]

Early attacks and aid for attacks
It is believed that the first bombing attack involving bin Laden was the 29 December 1992 bombing of the Gold Mihor Hotel in Aden in which two people were killed.[68]

It was after this bombing that al-Qaeda was reported to have developed its justification for the killing of innocent people. According to a fatwa issued by Mamdouh Mahmud Salim, the killing of someone standing near the enemy is justified because any innocent bystander will find their proper reward in death, going to Paradise if they were good Muslims and to hell if they were bad or non-believers.[69] The fatwa was issued to al-Qaeda members but not the general public.

In the 1990s bin Laden's al-Qaeda assisted jihadis financially and sometimes militarily in Algeria, Egypt and Afghanistan. In 1992 or 1993 bin Laden sent an emissary, Qari el-Said, with $40,000 to Algeria to aid the Islamists and urge war rather than negotiation with the government. Their advice was heeded but the war that followed killed 150,000-200,000 Algerians and ended with Islamist surrender to the government. Another unsuccessful effort by bin Laden was funding of the Luxor massacre of November 17 1997, [70][71][72] which killed sixty two civilians, but revolted the Egyptian public and turned it against Islamist terror. In mid-1997, the Northern Alliance threatened to overrun Jalalabad, causing Bin Laden to abandon his Nazim Jihad compound and move his operations to Tarnak Farms in the south.[73]

A later effort that did succeed was an attack on the city of Mazar-e-Sharif in Afghanistan. Bin Laden helped cement his alliance with his hosts the Taliban by sending several hundred of his Afghan Arab fighters along to help the Taliban kill between five and six thousand people overrunning the city.[74]

In 1998, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri co-signed a fatwa in the name of the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders which declared the killing of the North Americans and their allies an "individual duty for every Muslim" to "liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque (in Jerusalem) and the holy mosque (in Mecca) from their grip".[75][76] At the public announcement of the fatwa bin Laden announced that North Americans are "very easy targets." He told the attending journalists, "You will see the results of this in a very short time."[77]

September 11, 2001 attacks
See also: September 11 attacks
Wikinews has related news: Wikileaks obtains 10 years of messages, interviews from Osama bin Laden translated by CIA
Osama bin Laden has claimed responsibility for the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States.[78][79][80] The attacks involved the hijacking of United Airlines Flight 93, United Airlines Flight 175, American Airlines Flight 11, and American Airlines Flight 77; the subsequent destruction of those planes and the World Trade Center in New York City, New York; severe damage to The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia;[81] and the deaths of 2,974 people excluding the nineteen hijackers.[82] In response to the attacks, the United States launched a War on Terrorism to depose the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and capture al-Qaeda operatives, and several countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation to preclude future attacks.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation has stated that evidence linking Al-Qaeda and bin Laden to the attacks of September 11 is clear and irrefutable.[83] The Government of the United Kingdom reached the same conclusion regarding Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden's culpability for the September 11, 2001, attacks.[84] Bin Laden initially denied involvement in the September 11, 2001 attacks. On 16 September 2001, bin Laden read a statement later broadcast by Qatar's Al Jazeera satellite channel denying responsibility for the attack.[85]

In a videotape recovered by US forces in November 2001 in Jalalabad, bin Laden was seen discussing the attack with Khaled al-Harbi in a way indicating foreknowledge.[86] The tape was broadcast on various news networks on 13 December 2001. Some have disputed this translation however. Arabist Dr. Abdel El M. Husseini stated: "This translation is very problematic. At the most important places where it is held to prove the guilt of bin Laden, it is not identical with the Arabic."[87]

In the 2004 Osama bin Laden video, bin Laden abandoned his denials without retracting past statements. In it he stated he had personally directed the 19 hijackers.[79][88] In the 18-minute tape, played on Al-Jazeera, four days before the American presidential election, bin Laden accused U.S. President George W. Bush of negligence on the hijacking of the planes on September 11.[79]

According to the tapes, bin Laden claimed he was inspired to destroy the World Trade Center after watching the destruction of towers in Lebanon by Israel during the 1982 Lebanon War.[89]

In two other tapes aired by Al Jazeera in 2006, Osama bin Laden announces,

I am the one in charge of the 19 brothers … I was responsible for entrusting the 19 brothers … with the raids [5 minute audiotape broadcast May 23, 2006],[90]

and is seen with Ramzi Binalshibh, as well as two of the 9/11 hijackers, Hamza al-Ghamdi and Wail al-Shehri, as they make preparations for the attacks (videotape broadcast September 7, 2006).[91]

Criminal charges
On March 16, 1998, Libya issued the first official international Interpol arrest warrant against Bin Laden and three other people for killing two German citizens in Libya on 10 March 1994, one of which is thought to have been a German counter-intelligence officer. Bin Laden is still wanted by the Libyan government. [92][93] Osama bin Laden was first indicted by the United States on June 8, 1998, when a grand jury indicted Osama bin Laden on charges of killing five Americans and two Indians in the November 14, 1995 truck bombing of a US-operated Saudi National Guard training center in Riyadh.[94] Bin Laden was charged with "conspiracy to attack defense utilities of the United States" and prosecutors further charged that bin Laden is the head of the terrorist organization called al Qaeda, and that he was a major financial backer of Islamic fighters worldwide.[94] Bin Laden denied involvement but praised the attack. On November 4, 1998, Osama bin Laden was indicted by a Federal Grand Jury in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, on charges of Murder of US Nationals Outside the United States, Conspiracy to Murder US Nationals Outside the United States, and Attacks on a Federal Facility Resulting in Death[95] for his alleged role in the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. The evidence against bin Laden included courtroom testimony by former Al Qaeda members and satellite phone records.[96]

Bin Laden became the 456th person listed on the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list, when he was added to the list on June 7, 1999, following his indictment along with others for capital crimes in the 1998 embassy attacks. Attempts at assassination and requests for the extradition of bin Laden from the Taliban of Afghanistan were met with failure prior to the bombing of Afghanistan in October 2001.[97] In 1999, US President Bill Clinton convinced the United Nations to impose sanctions against Afghanistan in an attempt to force the Taliban to extradite him. Years later, on October 10, 2001, bin Laden appeared as well on the initial list of the FBI's top 22 Most Wanted Terrorists, which was released to the public by the President of the United States George W. Bush, in direct response to the attacks of 9/11, but which was again based on the indictment for the 1998 embassy attack. Bin Laden was among a group of 13 fugitive terrorists wanted on that latter list for questioning about the 1998 embassy bombings. Bin Laden remains the only fugitive ever to be listed on both FBI fugitive lists.

Despite the multiple indictments listed above and multiple requests, the Taliban refused to extradict Osama Bin Laden. It wasn't until after the bombing of Afghanistan began in October 2001 that the Taliban finally did offer to turn over Osama bin Laden to a third-party country for trial, in return for the US ending the bombing and providing evidence that Osama bin Laden was involved in the 9/11 attacks. This offer was rejected by George W Bush stating that this was no longer negotiable with Bush responding that "There's no need to discuss innocence or guilt. We know he's guilty."[98]

Attempted capture by the United States

US leaflet used in Afghanistan.
Clinton Administration
Capturing Osama bin Laden has been an objective of the United States government since the presidency of Bill Clinton.[99] The Sudanese government offered to arrest and extradite Bin Laden as well as to provide the United States detailed intelligence information about growing militant organizations in the region, including Hezbollah and Hamas.[100] Though U.S. authorities knew of bin Laden's involvement in bombings on an American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, they rejected the offer.[101] According to an article by Mansoor Ijaz in the LA Times, Mr. Ijaz brought the U.S. two subsequent offers to "deal with Osama bin Laden". Three months after the final offer in 2000, al Qaeda operatives bombed the U.S.S. Cole.[102] On September 11, 2001, members of al Qaeda carried out an attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Mansoor Ijaz, a former member of the CIA who participated directly in the United States' negotiations with Sudan for bin Laden, concludes, "Clinton’s failure to grasp the opportunity to unravel increasingly organized extremists, coupled with Berger’s assessments of their potential to directly threaten the U.S., represents one of the most serious foreign policy failures in American history."[103]

Bush Administration
According to The Washington Post, the US government concluded that Osama bin Laden was present during the Battle of Tora Bora, Afghanistan in late 2001, and according to civilian and military officials with first-hand knowledge, failure by the US to commit US ground troops to hunt him led to his escape and was the gravest failure by the US in the war against al Qaeda. Intelligence officials have assembled what they believe to be decisive evidence, from contemporary and subsequent interrogations and intercepted communications, that bin Laden began the battle of Tora Bora inside the cave complex along Afghanistan's mountainous eastern border.[104]

The Washington Post also reported that the CIA unit dedicated to capturing Osama was shut down in late 2005.[105]

US and Afghanistan forces raided the mountain caves in Tora Bora between 14 August and 16 August 2007. The military was drawn to the area after receiving intelligence of a pre-Ramadan meeting held by al Qaeda members. After killing dozens of al Qaeda and Taliban members, they did not find either Osama bin Laden or Ayman al Zawahiri.[106]

Immediately after the 9/11 attacks, US government officials named bin Laden and the Al-Qaeda organization as the prime suspects and offered a reward of $25 million for information leading to his capture or death.[107][2] On 13 July 2007, this figure was doubled to $50 million.[108]

The Airline Pilots Association and the Air Transport Association are offering an additional $2 million reward.[109]

Current whereabouts
Main article: Location of Osama bin Laden
Claims as to the location of Osama bin Laden have been made since December 2001, although none have been definitively proven and some have placed Osama in different locations during overlapping time periods.

An 11 December 2005, letter from Atiyah Abd al-Rahman to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi indicates that bin Laden and the al-Qaeda leadership were based in the Waziristan region of Pakistan at the time. In the letter, translated by the United States military's Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, "Atiyah" instructs Zarqawi to "send messengers from your end to Waziristan so that they meet with the brothers of the leadership … I am now on a visit to them and I am writing you this letter as I am with them…" Al-Rahman also indicates that bin Laden and al-Qaeda are "weak" and "have many of their own problems." The letter has been deemed authentic by military and counterterrorism officials, according to the Washington Post.[110][111]

In 2009 a research team led by Thomas W. Gillespie and John A. Agnew of UCLA used satellite-aided geographical analysis to pinpoint three compounds in Parachinar as likely hideouts of Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.[112]

In March 2009, the New York Daily News reported that the hunt for bin Laden had centered in the Chitral district of Pakistan, including the Kalam Valley. According to the report, author Rohan Gunaratna states that captured Al Qaeda leaders have confirmed that Chitral is where bin Laden is hiding.[113]

Reports of his death
April 2005: The Sydney Morning Herald stated "Dr Clive Williams, director of terrorism studies at the Australian National University, says documents provided by an Indian colleague suggested bin Laden died of massive organ failure in April last year … 'It's hard to prove or disprove these things because there hasn't really been anything that allows you to make a judgment one way or the other,' Dr. Williams said."[114]

August 2006: On 23 September 2006, the French newspaper L'Est Républicain quoted a report from the French secret service (DGSE) stating that Osama bin Laden had died in Pakistan on 23 August 2006, after contracting a case of typhoid fever that paralyzed his lower limbs.[115] According to the newspaper, Saudi security services first heard of bin Laden's alleged death on 4 September 2006.[116][117][118] The alleged death was reported by the Saudi Arabian secret service to its government, which reported it to the French secret service. The French defense minister Michèle Alliot-Marie expressed her regret that the report had been published while French President Jacques Chirac declared that bin Laden's death had not been confirmed.[119] American authorities also cannot confirm reports of bin Laden's death,[120] with Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice saying only, "No comment, and no knowledge."[121] Later, CNN's Nic Robertson said that he had received confirmation from an anonymous Saudi source that the Saudi intelligence community has known for a while that bin Laden has a water-borne illness, but that he had heard no reports that it was specifically typhoid or that he had died.[122]

November 2007: In an interview with political interviewer David Frost taken on November 2, 2007, the Pakistani politician and Pakistan Peoples Party chairwoman Benazir Bhutto claimed that bin Laden had been murdered by Omar Sheikh. During her answer to a question pertaining to the identities of those who had previously attempted her own assassination, Bhutto named Sheikh as a possible suspect while referring to him as "the man who murdered Osama bin Laden." Despite the weight of such a statement, neither Bhutto nor Frost attempted to clarify it during the remainder of the interview.[123] Omar Chatriwala, a journalist for Al Jazeera English, claims that he chose not to pursue the story at the time because he believes Bhutto misspoke, meaning to say Sheikh murdered Daniel Pearl and not Osama Bin Laden.[124] The BBC drew criticism when it rebroadcast the Frost/Bhutto interview on its website, but edited out Bhutto's statement regarding Osama Bin Laden. Later the BBC apologized and replaced the edited version with the complete interview.[125] In October 2007, Bhutto stated in an interview that she would cooperate with the American military in targeting Osama bin Laden.[126]

March 2009: In an essay published in The American Spectator in March of 2009, international relations professor Angelo Codevilla of Boston University argued that Osama bin Laden had been dead for many years.[127]

Main article: Criticism of Osama bin Laden
Salafist Muslims have criticized bin Laden for adherence to Qutbism (the ideology of Sayyid Qutb), takfir and Khaarijite deviance. Critics are said to include Muhammad Ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee, Abd-al-Aziz ibn Abd-Allah ibn Baaz, Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan and Muqbil bin Haadi al-Waadi'ee.

See also
Messages of Osama bin Laden
Messages of Ayman al-Zawahiri
Afghan Arabs
Allegations of CIA assistance to Osama bin Laden
Afghan Civil War
Clearstream scandal (Bin Laden's Bahrain International Bank used this clearing house for its financial activities).
Bin Laden Issue Station (The CIA's bin Laden tracking unit, 1996-2005)
The Golden Chain
Islamic fundamentalism
Islamist terrorism
Ladenese epistle
Osama bin Laden as destructive Cult leader
Osama bin Laden in popular culture
Saleh Abdullah Kamel

^ In a New Video, Bin Laden Predicts U.S. Failure in Iraq - washingtonpost.com
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^ Letter From Jedda, Young Osama, How he learned radicalism, and may have seen America, by Steve Coll, The New Yorker Fact, Issue of 2005-12-12, Posted 2005-12-05
^ Letter From Jedda, Young Osama, How he learned radicalism, and may have seen America, by Steve Coll, The New Yorker Fact, Issue of 2005-12-12, Posted 2005-12-05
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^ Wright, Looming Tower, (2006), p.79
^ Analysing Bin Laden's jihadi poetry, Michael Hirst, BBC News, 24 September 2008
^ Michael Slackman (13 November 2001), Bin Laden Kin Wait and Worry, Los Angeles Times, http://articles.latimes.com/2001/nov/13/news/mn-3564, retrieved on 2008-10-02
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^ CNN.com - Transcripts
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^ Messages, 2005, p.218. "Resist the New Rome, audiotape delivered to al-Jazeera and broadcast by it on 4 January 2004
^ Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism by Dale C. Eikmeier. From Parameters, Spring 2007, pp. 85-98.
^ Messages, (2005), p.143. from an interview published in Al-Quds Al-Arabi in London 12 November 2001 (originally published in Pakistani daily, Ausaf, Nov. 7
^ Messages to the World, (2005), pp.xix, xx, editor Bruce Lawrence
^ Oct. 6, 2002. Appeared in Al-Qala'a website and then the London Observer 24 November 2002.
^ Messages, (2005) p.70. Al Jazeera interview, December 1998, following Kenya and Tanzania embassy attacks.
^ Messages, (2005), p.119, October 21, 2001 interview with Taysir Alluni of Al Jazeera
^ Messages, (2005), p.190. from 53-minute audiotape that "was circulated on various websites." dated Feb. 14, 2003. "Among a Band of Knights."
^ from interview with Ali Soufan - a Lebanese Sunni FBI]agent - by Wright, Wright, Looming Tower (2006), p.303
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^ Wright, Looming Tower (2006), p.167
^ Wright, Looming Tower (2006), p.172
^ Osama: The Making of a Terrorist John Randal I B Tauris & Co Ltd (October 4, 2005)
^ A Capitol Idea Donald E. Abelson p. 208
^ The New York Times July 8, 2007
^ The New York Times September 17, 2001
^ BBC 21 May 2008Is global terror threat falling?, BBC News, 21 May 2008
^ "Osama bin Laden's operation" has "perpetrated the worst act of terrorism ever witnessed on US soil."
^ The Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of al Qaeda's Leader, Peter Bergen Free Press August 8, 2006
^ Through Our Enemies' Eyes: Osama bin Laden, Radical Islam, and the Future of America Michael Scheuer Potomac Books Inc. January 15, 2006
^ Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty-First Century Marc Sageman University of Pennsylvania Press January 3, 2008
^ "...bin Laden himself is perhaps best viewed as a terrorist CEO."
^ A Devil's Triangle: Terrorism, Weapons Of Mass Destruction, And Rogue States Peter Brookes Rowman & Littlefield, 2005
^ "Wanted: Usama Bin Laden". Interpol. http://www.interpol.int/Public/Data/Wanted/Notices/Data/1998/32/1998_20232.asp. Retrieved on 2006-05-15.
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^ "Photo: Zbigniew Brzezinski & Osama bin Laden"". http://fufor.twoday.net/stories/2302873/. Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
^ Lawrence Wright estimates his "share of the Saudi Binladin Group" circa fall 1989 as "amounted to 27 million Saudi riyals - a little more than [US]$ 7 million." Wright, (2006), p.145)
^ The Osama bin Laden I Know by Peter L. Bergen, pp.74–88. ISBN 0-7432-7892-5
^ Wright, Lawrence, Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11, by Lawrence Wright, NY, Knopf, 2006 p.146
^ Bosnia — base for terrorism
^ Smith, Jeffrey. Washington Post, "A Bosnian Village's Terrorist Ties", March 11 2000
^ Canadian Security Intelligence Service, Summary of the Security Intelligence Report concerning Hassan Almrei, February 22, 2008.
^ Baravalle, Giorgio. "Rethink: Cause and Consequences of September 11", 2004
^ Assyrian International News Agency, "Jihadists find convenient base in Bosnia", August 17 2005
^ Bin Laden’s Balkan Connections
^ BIN LADEN WAS GRANTED BOSNIAN PASSPORT, Agence France Presse September 24, 1999
^ Outsiders Bring Islamic Fervor To the Balkans
^ Bin Laden’s Balkan Connections
^ 'The Charleston Gazette.' November 30, 1998 - Page 2A
^ 'The Canberra Times'. April 28, 2000 - Page 8
^ ['Washington Times' June 22, 2001, "Bin Laden´s new special envoys"]
^ Wright, Looming Towers (2006), p.195
^ "9/11 Commission Report, Chapter 4" (PDF). 9/11 Commission. http://www.9-11commission.gov/report/911Report_Ch4.pdf.
^ Los Angeles Times, Fighters hunt former ally, December 6, 2001
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^ testimony of Jamal al-Fadl, US v. Usama bin Laden, et.al.
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^ "Profile: Ayman al-Zawahiri". BBC online network. 2004-09-27. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1560834.stm. Retrieved on 2006-09-24.
^ Testimony of Abdurahman Khadr as a witness in the trial against Charkaoui, July 13, 2004
^ Rashid, Taliban, p.139
^ Shaykh Usamah Bin-Muhammad Bin-Ladin; Ayman al-Zawahiri, Abu-Yasir Rifa'i Ahmad Taha, Shaykh Mir Hamzah, Fazlur Rahman (1998-02-23). "World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders: Initial "Fatwa" Statement" (in Arabic). al-Quds al-Arabi. http://www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideast/fatw2.htm. Retrieved on 2006-09-10.
^ Shaykh Usamah Bin-Muhammad Bin-Ladin; Ayman al-Zawahiri, Abu-Yasir Rifa'i Ahmad Taha, Shaykh Mir Hamzah, Fazlur Rahman (1998-02-23). "Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders. World Islamic Front Statement". al-Quds al-Arabi. http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/docs/980223-fatwa.htm. Retrieved on 2006-09-24. English language version of the fatwa translated by the Federation of American Scientists of the original Arabic document published in the newspaper al-Quds al-Arabi (London, U.K.) on 23 February 1998, p.3
^ Van Atta, Dale (1998). "CARBOMBS & CAMERAS - The Need for Responsible Media Coverage of Terrorism". Harvard International Review (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard International Relations Council) 20 (4): 66. ISBN 9780895264855. ISSN 0739-1854. http://www.allbusiness.com/public-administration/national-security-international/709509-1.html.
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^ Watson, Dale L., Executive Assistant Director, Counter terrorism/Counterintelligence Division, FBI (6 February 2002). ""The Terrorist Threat Confronting the United States", Congressional Testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence". Federal Bureau of Investigation. http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress02/watson020602.htm.
^ "Responsibility for the Terrorist Atrocities in the United States, 11 September 2001". 10 Downing Street, Office of the Prime Minister of the UK. November 2001. http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/page3682.asp. Retrieved on 2006-09-29.
^ Associated Press; Carl Cameron, Marla Lehner, Paul Wagenseil (2001-08-16). "Pakistan to Demand Taliban Give Up Bin Laden as Iran Seals Afghan Border". Fox News. http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,34440,00.html.
^ "Bin Laden on tape: Attacks 'benefited Islam greatly'". CNN. December 14, 2001. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/12/13/ret.bin.laden.videotape/. Retrieved on 2006-09-07.
^ ""Bin-Laden-Video: Falschübersetzung als Beweismittel?". WDR, Das Erste, MONITOR Nr. 485 am 20.12.2001. http://web.archive.org/web/20021218105636/www.wdr.de/tv/monitor/beitraege.phtml?id=379.
^ "Al-Jazeera: Bin Laden tape obtained in Pakistan". MSNBC. 30 October 2004. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6363306/. Retrieved on 2006-09-07. —"In the tape, bin Laden—wearing traditional white robes, a turban and a tan cloak—reads from papers at a lectern against a plain brown background. Speaking quietly in an even voice, he tells the American people that he ordered the September 11 attacks because “we are a free people” who wanted to "regain the freedom" of their nation."
^ Excerpts: Bin Laden video. BBC Online/
^ [1] Newsday
^ "Bin Laden 9/11 planning video aired". CBC News. September 7 2006. http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2006/09/07/al-qaeda-tape.html.
^ "Was Libyan WMD Disarmament a Significant Success for Nonproliferation?". NTI. http://www.nti.org/e_research/e3_56a.html.
^ Interpol Arrest Warrant File No. 1998/20232, Control No. A-268/5-1998. Brisard Jean-Charles, Dasquie Guillaume. “Forbidden Truth.” (New York: Thunder Mouth Press, 2002), p. 156.
^ a b Frontline; The New York Times and Rain Media ([2001?]). ""Osama bin Laden: A Chronology of His Political Life"". Hunting bin Laden: Who Is bin Laden?. WGBH Educational Foundation. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/etc/cron.html. Retrieved on 2006-07-25.
^ "Indictment #S(9) 98 Cr. 1023" (PDF). United States District Court, Southern District of New York. http://fl1.findlaw.com/news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/binladen/usbinladen1.pdf.
^ "Embassy bombing defendant linked to bin Laden". CNN. 14 February 2001. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/LAW/02/14/embassy.bombing.02/index.html.
^ "Osama bin Laden 'innocent'". BBC News. 21 November 1998. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/217947.stm.
^ Bush rejects Taliban offer to hand Bin Laden over, guardian.co.uk, Sunday October 14 2001
^ http://www.cnn.com/2006/POLITICS/09/24/clinton.binladen/index.html Bill Clinton: I got closer to killing bin Laden
^ http://articles.latimes.com/2001/dec/05/opinion/oe-ijaz05 Clinton Let Bin Laden Slip Away and Metastisize.
^ http://articles.latimes.com/2001/dec/05/opinion/oe-ijaz05 Clinton Let Bin Laden Slip Away and Metastisize.
^ http://articles.latimes.com/2001/dec/05/opinion/oe-ijaz05 Clinton Let Bin Laden Slip Away and Metastisize.
^ http://articles.latimes.com/2001/dec/05/opinion/oe-ijaz05 Clinton Let Bin Laden Slip Away and Metastisize.
^ Gellman, Barton; Ricks, Thomas E. (2002-04-16). "U.S. Concludes Bin Laden Escaped at Tora Bora Fight". http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A62618-2002Apr16. Retrieved on 2007-02-25.
^ CIA Reportedly Disbands Bin Laden Unit
^ Bin Laden may have just escaped U.S. forces - Nightly News with Brian Williams - MSNBC.com
^ "Five Years Ago Today - Usama bin Laden: Wanted for Murder". Federal Bureau of Investigation. 5 November 2003. http://www.fbi.gov/page2/nov03/laden110503.htm.
^ ""Senate doubles Bin Laden reward"". BBC News. 2007-07-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6898075.stm. Retrieved on 2007-07-14.
^ "Officials, friends can't confirm Bin Laden death report". CNN. 24 September 2006. http://www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/09/23/france.binladen/index.html.
^ Karen DeYoung (2 October 2006). "Letter Gives Glimpse of Al-Qaeda's Leadership". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/01/AR2006100101083.html?nav=rss_world/mideast/iraq.
^ "Letter Exposes New Leader in Al-Qa`ida High Command (PDF)" (PDF). Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. 25 September 2006. http://www.ctc.usma.edu/harmony/CTC-AtiyahLetter.pdf.
^ Gillepsie, Thomas W. et al. (2009). "Finding Osama bin Laden: An Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery". MIT International Review. http://web.mit.edu/mitir/2009/online/finding-bin-laden.pdf. Retrieved on 2009-02-17.
^ Meek, James Gordon, "Tighten The Net On Evil", New York Daily News, March 15, 2009, p. 27.
^ "Expert says bin Laden could be dead", by Australian Associated Press, 16 January 2006, in the Sydney Morning Herald.
^ "Officials, friends can't confirm Bin Laden death report". CNN. 2006-09-23. http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/europe/09/23/france.binladen/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
^ "French paper says bin Laden died in Pakistan". Reuters. 2006-09-23. http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/articlenews.aspx?type=worldNews&storyID=2006-09-23T075358Z_01_L23801953_RTRUKOC_0_UK-SECURITY-BINLADEN-FRANCE.xml.
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Peter L. Bergen, The Osama bin Laden I Know: New York: Free Press, 2006
Michael Scheuer, Through Our Enemies' Eyes, Washington, D.C. : Brassey's, c2002
Wright, Lawrence, The Looming Tower : Al-Qaeda And The Road To 9/11, New York : Knopf, 2006.

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Learning resources from WikiversityHunting Bin Laden - PBS Frontline
Who is Osama bin Laden - BBC News
FBIS Report, Compilation of Usama Bin Laden Statements 1994-January 2004
FBI's 10 Most Wanted Fugitives poster
New Yorker article on Osama's youth
[show]v • d • eOsama bin Laden

Childhood, education, and personal life – Bin Laden family – Militant activity – Beliefs and ideology – Location – Videos – Criticism – In popular culture – Issue Station

[show]v • d • eWar on Terrorism

Timeline · Casualties · Theaters · Criticism · ISAF

Participants Operational ISAF · Operation Enduring Freedom participants · Multinational force in Iraq · Afghanistan · Northern Alliance · Iraq (Iraqi Army) · NATO · Pakistan · United Kingdom · United States · Philippines · Ethiopia

Targets al-Qaeda · Osama bin Laden · Abu Sayyaf · Iraqi insurgency · Hamas · Islamic Courts Union · Jemaah Islamiyah · Taliban · Pattani Separatists · Jaish-e-Mohammed · Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami · Hizbul Mujahideen · Kurdistan Workers' Party · Hezbollah · Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan · Lashkar-e-Taiba

Conflicts Operation
Enduring Freedom War in Afghanistan · OEF - Philippines · Georgia Train and Equip Program · Georgia Sustainment and Stability · OEF - Horn of Africa · OEF - Trans Sahara · Missile strikes in Pakistan

Other Insurgency in the Maghreb · Iraq insurgency and operations · Insurgency in Saudi Arabia · War in North-West Pakistan · South Thailand insurgency · Lebanon War · War in Somalia · Lebanon-Fatah al-Islam conflict

attacks 2001–2002 September 11 attacks · 2001 Indian Parliament attack · Shoe bomb plot · Terrorism in Pakistan · Ghriba synagogue bombing · 1st Bali bombing

2003–2004 Riyadh compound bombings · Casablanca bombings · 2003 Mumbai bombings · Jakarta Marriott Hotel bombing · Istanbul bombings · SuperFerry 14 bombing · Madrid train bombings · Beslan school hostage crisis · Jakarta Australian embassy bombing

2005–2006 1st London bombings · 2nd London bombings · Sharm el-Sheikh attacks · 2nd Bali bombing · 1st Delhi bombings · Amman bombings · 2006 Varanasi bombings · 2006 Mumbai train bombings · Transatlantic aircraft plot · Toronto terrorism plot

2007–2008 1st Algiers bombings · Fort Dix attack plot · Ankara bombing · London car bomb plot · Glasgow Airport attack · Hyderabad bombings · Qahtaniya bombings · Karachi bombing · Baghlan bombing · Philippine Congress bombing · 2nd Algiers bombings · Assassination of Benazir Bhutto · Jaipur bombings · Danish embassy · Indian embassy · United States consulate · Istanbul bombings · Bangalore bombings-Ahmedabad · 2nd Delhi bombings · American embassy · Islamabad bombing · 3rd Delhi bombing · 2008 Assam bombings · 2008 Mumbai attacks

See also Abu Ghraib prison · Axis of evil · Bush Doctrine · CIA run Black sites · Combatant Status Review Tribunal · Enhanced interrogation techniques · Extrajudicial prisoners of the US · Extraordinary rendition · Guantanamo Bay detention camp · Military Commissions Act · NSA electronic surveillance program · Protect America Act of 2007 · Unitary executive theory · Unlawful combatant · USA PATRIOT Act

Terrorism · War

NAME Bin Laden, Osama
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Osama bin Muhammad bin 'Awad bin Laden (full name); أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن (Arabic); Laden, Osama bin (alternate form); Bin Laden, Usama (alternate transliteration); UBL (common referent); Bin Ladin, Ussamah (alternate transliteration); Ben Laden, Oussama (alternate transliteration); Binladen, Osama (alternate transliteration); Binladin, Osama (alternate transliteration); Al-Amir (alias); Abu Abdallah (alias); Mujahid, Sheikh Al- (alias)
DATE OF BIRTH 10 March 1957
PLACE OF BIRTH Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osama_bin_Laden"
Categories: 1957 births | Afghan Civil War | Al-Qaeda founders | Civil engineers | FBI Top Ten Most Wanted Fugitives | Islamic terrorism | Osama bin Laden | People involved in the Soviet war in Afghanistan | Living people | September 11 attacks | Fugitives wanted on terrorism charges | Saudi anti-communists | Saudi Arabian Sunni Muslims | Saudi Arabian al-Qaeda members | Saudi poets | FBI Most Wanted Terrorists | People of the War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
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